Na wai i hana iā Microsoft? ʻO ka hoʻomaka ʻana o kekahi o nā ʻoihana nui loa i ka mōʻaukala.

He lālā o ka hui koho o nā hui me ka waiwai kūʻai ma nā piliona kālā US, Microsoft Ke hana nei ʻo ia i kāna alahele mai ka makahiki 70. ʻOi aku ka pololei mai 1975, ka makahiki i hoʻokumu ʻia ai.

Mai kona wahi haʻahaʻa ma ke kihi o kona hānau ʻana, ʻo Albuquerque, ma ka Mokuʻāina ʻo New Mexico, USA (i ka makahiki 1979, lilo ke keʻena nui o Microsoft i Seattle, Wakinekona), ua lanakila ka hui i ka honua a hoʻokumu iā ia iho he titan maoli i ka ʻoihana papahana.

Ma ka ʻatikala e nānā mākou i kāna pae mua, e nānā i ka hoʻolālā ʻana o nā hoa ʻelua i haʻalele a hana maoli i ka mea a mākou i helu ai i kēia lā ma ke ʻano he ʻoihana no ka papahana.

Na wai i hana iā Microsoft?

LA Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Microsoft ma ʻApelila 4, 1975 e Bill Gates lāua ʻo Paul Allen. ʻO nā hoaaloha mai ka hopena o ka makahiki 1960, he mau hoa ʻo Gates lāua ʻo Allen ma mua o ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o Microsoft.

ʻEkolu mau makahiki ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana i ka ʻoihana e hoʻololi i ko lākou ola, hana lākou Traf-O-Data, nāna i hoʻolālā i kahi pc e ana i ke kaʻa alanui. Ua koi ʻo Allen e pono lākou e hoʻokomo i kahi hui papahana.

A pēlā i hana ʻia ai. Ua haʻalele ʻo Gates mai ke Kulanui ʻo Harvard a ua haʻalele ʻo Allen mai ke Kulanui Mokuʻāina ʻo Washington State, me ka lawe ʻana i ka manaʻo i kēia hui hou, ʻo Microsoft, ka mea, i ka wā mua, ua lawe ʻo ia i kahi huaʻōlelo ʻokoʻa ma mua o ka mea a mākou i kamaʻāina ai i kēia lā.

Ua hana ka hui microsoft. Ua hoʻokaʻawale ka palapala i ka pōkole o nā ʻōlelo ʻelua i hoʻokumu i ka inoa o ka hui. ʻO Micro, no ka microprocessor, he huaʻōlelo i hoʻomohala ʻia e Intel me ka paʻi ʻana o ka Intel 4004 i ka makahiki 1971, a me Soft, no ka papahana, ka ʻāpana kūpono e hoʻokele i nā haʻawina lako.

Habitual Electronics: ʻO ka Gazette nāna i hoʻomaka

Ma Ianuali 1, 1975, ua puka mai ʻo Allen me ka puke hou loa o ka Regular Electronics magazine, i uhi i ka pahu hui PC. Altair 8800 mai MIT, i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i ka makahiki 1974. Ua kapa ʻia ka paʻi ʻana ʻo ia ka pahu miniPC mua e hoʻokūkū i nā kumu hoʻohālike kiʻekiʻe.

Ua hauʻoli nui ʻo Allen i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana, a ua ʻike ʻo ia e kū nei i kahi kahe o nā PC hou e hoʻohana pono ai i ka microprocessor.

No ka nui o ka hoihoi o Allen no ka paʻi ʻana, ua holo wikiwiki ʻo ia e hui me Bill Gates ma Harvard a koi aku iā ia e haʻalele i ke kula i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻopukapuka kālā a ʻaʻole e poina i ka manawa o kēia kipi e hiki mai ana. Ua lulu ʻo Allen iā Gates a ʻōlelo ʻo ia "ʻAe, hiki kēia me ka ʻole o mākou."

Ka heihei no BASIC

Altair 8800
Altair 8800

I ka pau ʻana o ka heluhelu ʻana o Gates i ka huahana Altair 8800 ma ka pou, ua ʻae ʻo Gates aia lākou i kahi mea hoʻohaunaele. E like me ka mea i aʻo ʻia ma ka puke "Renovadores" (Companhia das Letras /2014), ʻo ka mea a Gates lāua ʻo Allen i koho ai i ka heluhelu ʻana i kēlā paʻi o Habitual Electronics ʻo ia ka hana ʻana i nā papahana no nā PC pilikino.

ʻAʻoleʻo ia wale nō, ua manaʻo lākou e hiki ke hoʻololi i keʻanoʻoihana. E lilo ana ka hāmeʻa, maʻemaʻe a maʻalahi, i mea hoʻohuihui, aʻo nā mea hana o ka OS a me nā polokalamu e ʻohi i ka hapa nui o ka loaʻa.

ʻOiai ma mua o ke koho ʻia ʻana o ka inoa Micro-Soft no kēlā hui hou, aia ʻo Gates lāua ʻo Allen i ka pāʻani. ʻO ka hana mua e kākau i ka papahana e hiki ai i nā mea pā o kāna Altair 8800 ke hana i nā papahana no ia.

https://devblogs.microsoft.com/vbteam/history-of-microsoft-video-bill-gates-talks-about-altair-basic-lisa-feigenbaum/

Ua hoʻomohala lākou i ka unuhi ʻōlelo no ka ʻōlelo papahana BASIC, he ʻōlelo i kūkulu ʻia e nā kumu aʻo ʻo John Kemeny lāua ʻo Thomas Kurtz i ka makahiki 1964.

ʻO kēia ʻōlelo, ka mea i kōkua i ka hana ʻana i ka huahana mua a Micro-Soft ma ke ʻano he hui, ʻo ia ka ʻōlelo papahana kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe no ka MITS PC e holo ana ma ka microprocessor lua i hoʻokuʻu ʻia e Intel, ka 8008.

ʻO ka heihei me ka manawa i hoʻomaka ai ka hopohopo iā Gates a me Allen. ʻO ka mea maʻamau, ʻaʻole ʻo lākou wale nō ka poʻe e kali nei e hui pū me nā mea i waena o nā manawa kikoʻī o ka hoʻopili pilikino.

I ka manawa i kāhea aku ai ʻo Gates, e hoʻololi ana i kona leo a hoʻolauna iā ia iho ʻo Paul Allen Ed Roberts, ʻO MIT ka mea nāna i hana a me ka mea nāna i kūkulu i ka Altar 8800, e ʻōlelo ana he BASIC kāna no ka Altair i kokoke mākaukau a makemake e hōʻike. Ua lohe ʻo ia mai Roberts ua loaʻa iā ia nā kelepona he nui e like me ia a ʻo ka mea mua e hiki i laila me kahi BASIC hoʻokani e loaʻa i ka ʻaelike.

Me ka loaʻa ʻole o kahi Altair 8800 e hana ai, e hoʻohana ana i kahi emulation o ka Harvard PDP-10, ua hoʻopau ka duo i ʻewalu mau pule coding. ʻO ka manaʻo e emi iho ka polokalamu ma mua o 4KB, ka hoʻomanaʻo kiʻekiʻe loa o ka Altar 8800. Ua hoʻokō lākou i ka 3,2KB.

ka hana moeuhane

Ua lele ʻo Paul Allen i Albuquerque, New Mexico, kahi i loaʻa ai ke keʻena MITS. ʻO kēia kahi e hoʻololi ʻia ai ka moʻolelo o Gates lāua ʻo Allen no ke ola a pau.

I ke kakahiaka o ka lā ma hope o ka hōʻea ʻana o Allen i ke kūlanakauhale, ʻo ia ka manawa e aʻo ai i ka BASIC i nā momona MITS. Ua lawe ka mīkini i 10 mau minuke e hoʻouka i ke code no ka unuhi ʻōlelo BASIC o Micro-Soft, ʻaʻole i kapa ʻia.

ʻO ka ʻōlelo hoʻomāʻewaʻewa huna wale nō mai ka lehulehu o ka MITS e kali ana i kahi fiasco o kēia hoʻāʻo i holo i loko o ka lumi. Akā ua hana. Ma waena o nā hōʻike, kākau ʻo Allen i ka "print 2 + 2". A pane ka mīkini "4". He hōʻike maʻalahi ia i kāhāhā iā Roberts. ʻO ia ka manawa e holo ai ka polokalamu ma kahi PC home.

Mai kona hōʻea ʻana i Albuquerque a hiki i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka unuhi ʻōlelo BASIC, ua loli koke ka inoa o Allen. Ua hele ʻo ia mai kahi hana hoʻomāinoino a hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻia e Ed Roberts a me kāna mau hoa i ka luna hanohano e hana pono ana i kahi mea i ʻike paʻa ʻia e nā ʻelele MITS.

Ua pani ʻia ka ʻaelike. E laikini ana ka MITS i ka unuhi ʻōlelo BASIC mai ka hui ʻo Bill Gates a me Paul Allen no nā mīkini Altair a pau. Ua lanakila ʻo Allen i kahi hana ma MITS ma ke ʻano he luna papahana.

ʻO Bill Gates ma lalo hema, Paul Allen ma lalo ʻākau a me 9 ʻē aʻe i hoʻohana iā Microsoft i ka makahiki 1978

Hoʻokahi mea e hoʻopilikia ai iā Gates: ka nele o ka formality i ka hana. Ua hoʻopaʻa ʻo Allen lāua ʻo Roberts i ka hui laikini me ka lulu lima. ʻOi aku ka nui ma mua o kēlā. Ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻaelike maʻamau a ma ʻaneʻi ua ʻike ʻia ke kāleka kumu mua Microsoft:

  • Na Bill Gates lāua ʻo Paul Allen ka papahana, ʻo MITS wale nō ka laikini;
  • Ua ʻae pū ʻo MITS e hoʻokaʻawale i ka papahana i nā mea hoʻolaha ʻē aʻe, e hoʻokaʻawale ana i nā kālā me Bill Gates a me Paul Allen.

E like me kā lākou wānana ma mua o ka lilo ʻana o ka hana MITS, e hoʻoponopono ka papahana i ka mākeke, ʻaʻole ka lako. Me ka hoʻohui ʻana ʻaʻole e hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka papahana Gates a me Allen i kahi hoa hana. Ua hana hou ʻia kēia hoʻolālā i nā makahiki ma hope. Akā i kēia manawa ʻo ka ʻaelike me ka IBM mōʻaukala, e heluhelu hou aʻe e pili ana i kēia kuʻikahi kaʻao ʻaneʻi.

Pono ʻoe e nānā iā ia!

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ʻO Bill Gates lāua ʻo Paul Allen, nā ala like ʻole, hoʻoilina pū

nāna i hana i ka microsoft

I ka makahiki 1983, haʻalele ʻo Allen i kāna kūlana hoʻokō ma Microsoft. I kēia makahiki ʻo ia i ʻike ai i ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin, he ʻano maʻi maʻi maʻi, he kaua āna i hana ai me ke kūʻē a me ka hanohano a hiki i ka manawa hope. Ua make ʻo Allen i ka makahiki 2018.

ʻO ka pilina ma waena o kēia mau kanaka koʻikoʻi i ka moʻolelo ʻenehana he mau piʻi a me lalo. ʻAʻole lākou i kamaʻilio i loko o hoʻokahi makahiki, akā ua hana lākou i ko lākou ʻokoʻa.

ʻO kā lāua manawa nui hope loa i hui pū ʻia ma ka lehulehu, i paʻi ʻia i hoʻokahi kiʻi nani, i hana ʻia i ka makahiki 2013, e hana hou ana i kahi kiʻi a lākou i lawe ai i ka makahiki 1981. Ua hoʻopuni ʻia ʻo Paul Allen lāua ʻo Bill Gates e kahi ʻāpana o ka hoʻoilina a lāua i kūkulu pū ai. ʻO nā PC!

Tommy Banks
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