Kūʻai ʻenehana

akamai TV

ʻO ka kānalua e pili ana i ke ʻano o kēia mau leka āpau he kūlohelohe ke kūʻai ʻana i ke kelepona hou. Loaʻa i nā hiʻohiʻona Smart TV nā hoʻonohonoho like ʻole, me nā pale LED, LCD, OLED, QLED a me MicroLED a pono ʻoe e koho i ke koho maikaʻi loa.

Ma waho aʻe o ke kumukūʻai, pono e hoʻomaopopo i ka hana ʻana o kēlā me kēia ʻenehana hōʻike ma kāu TV.

I ka pōkole, e hoʻomaopopo i ka ʻokoʻa ma waena o nā hiʻohiʻona pale, ko lākou pono a me nā pilikia nui āu e hālāwai ai inā hoʻoholo ʻoe e kūʻai i kekahi o lākou.

4K hoʻonā: ʻike i nā pono a inā pono ia

4K hoʻonā: ʻike i nā pono a inā pono ia

ʻAʻohe mea maikaʻi aʻe ma mua o ka leʻaleʻa ʻana i kahi kiʻiʻoniʻoni a i ʻole nā ​​​​moʻolelo ma ka hopena pule, me ka maikaʻi maikaʻi loa, ʻeā? Nui nā koho TV a he mea paʻakikī ke koho ʻana i kekahi. He mea pili ia...

Nā ʻokoʻa ma waena o nā ʻenehana hōʻike

I kēia manawa, nui nā panela no nā Smart TV, kēlā me kēia me kāna mau hiʻohiʻona a me kāna ʻenehana. Eia mākou e hōʻike iā ʻoe i kēlā me kēia i ʻike ʻoe i ka mea kūpono iā ʻoe.

LCD

Hāʻawi ka ʻenehana LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) i ke ola i nā mea i kapa ʻia nā hōʻike aniani wai. Loaʻa iā lākou kahi papa aniani lahilahi me nā kristal i hoʻomalu ʻia e ka uila i loko, ma waena o ʻelua mau ʻāpana alohilohi (ʻo ia nā kānana polarizing).

Hoʻomālamalama ʻia kēia pā aniani wai e kahi kukui CCFL (fluorescent). Hoʻomālamalama ka backlight keʻokeʻo i nā cell o nā waihoʻoluʻu mua ('ōmaʻomaʻo, ʻulaʻula a me ka uliuli, ka RGB kaulana) a ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻokumu i nā kiʻi kala āu e ʻike ai.

ʻO ka ikaika o ke au uila i loaʻa i kēlā me kēia kristal e wehewehe i kona ʻano, e ʻae ai i ka nui a i ʻole ka liʻiliʻi o ka mālamalama e hele i loko o ke kānana i hana ʻia e nā sub-pixels ʻekolu.

Ma kēia kaʻina hana, komo nā transistors i kahi ʻano kiʻiʻoniʻoni, nona ka inoa ʻo Thin Film Transistor (TFT). ʻO ia ke kumu maʻamau ka ʻike ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona LCD/TFT. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole pili ka acronym i kekahi ʻano o ka pale LCD, akā i kahi mea maʻamau o nā pale LCD.

Loaʻa ka pale LCD i nā pilikia ʻelua: 1) aia nā miliona o nā hui kala a ʻaʻole pololei ka pale LCD i kekahi manawa; 2) ʻAʻole ʻoiaʻiʻo loa ka ʻeleʻele, no ka mea, pono ke aniani e ālai i nā kukui a pau e hana i kahi wahi ʻeleʻele 100%, ʻaʻole hiki i ka ʻenehana ke hana pololei, e hopena i nā "ʻeleʻele hina" a i ʻole nā ​​​​ʻeleʻele māmā.

Ma nā pale TFT LCD hiki nō hoʻi ke loaʻa nā pilikia me ke kihi nānā inā ʻaʻole ʻoe 100% e kū pono ana i ka pale. ʻAʻole kēia he pilikia i loaʻa i ka LCD, akā i ka TFT a i nā LCD TV me IPS, e like me nā LG, loaʻa iā mākou nā kihi ākea ākea.

alakai

ʻO ka LED (Light Emitting Diode) he diode māmā. ʻO nā huaʻōlelo ʻē aʻe, ʻo nā kīwī me nā pale LED he mea ʻē aʻe ma mua o nā televise nona ka pale LCD (ʻo ia paha a ʻaʻole paha he IPS) he backlight e hoʻohana ana i nā diodes māmā.

ʻO kāna pono nui, ʻo ia ka hoʻopau ʻana i ka mana ma mua o ka panel LCD kuʻuna. No laila, hana like ka LED me ka LCD, akā ʻokoʻa ke kukui i hoʻohana ʻia, me nā diodes māmā no ka hōʻike aniani wai. Ma kahi o ka pale holoʻokoʻa e loaʻa i ka mālamalama, hoʻomālamalama kaʻawale nā ​​kiko, kahi e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka wehewehe, nā kala a me ka ʻokoʻa.

E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻomaopopo: 1) Hoʻohana ka LCD TV i Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps (CCFL) e hoʻomālamalama i ka lalo holoʻokoʻa o ka panel; 2) ʻoiai ʻo LED (he ʻano LCD) e hoʻohana ana i kahi pūʻulu o nā diodes liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e hoʻomālamalama i kēia panel.

'OLED

He mea maʻamau ka lohe ʻana ʻo ka OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) kahi evolution o ka LED (Light Emitting Diode), no ka mea, he diode organik, hoʻololi nā mea.

ʻO nā OLED, mahalo i kēia ʻenehana, ʻaʻole e hoʻohana i ka backlight maʻamau no kā lākou mau pixels a pau, e hoʻomālamalama paʻa i ka wā e hele ai kahi au uila i kēlā me kēia. ʻO ia hoʻi, loaʻa i nā paneli OLED kā lākou iho kukui ponoʻī, me ka ʻole o ke kukui hope.

ʻO nā pōmaikaʻi, ʻoi aku ka ʻoi aku o nā kala ʻoi aku ka nani, ka ʻōlinolino a me ka ʻokoʻa. E like me ka mana o kēlā me kēia pixel i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o ka mālamalama, ke hiki mai ka manawa e hana hou ai i ke kala ʻeleʻele, ua lawa ia e hoʻopau i ke kukui, kahi e hōʻoiaʻiʻo ai i nā "ʻeleʻele ʻeleʻele" a ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka ikehu. Ma ka hāʻawi ʻana i ka papa kukui holoʻokoʻa, ʻoi aku ka lahilahi a me ka maʻalahi o nā pale OLED.

ʻO kāna mau pilikia ʻelua: 1) ke kumu kūʻai kiʻekiʻe, hāʻawi ʻia i ke kumu kūʻai kiʻekiʻe o ka pale OLED i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me kahi LED kuʻuna a LCD paha; 2) He pōkole ke ola o ka TV.

ʻO Samsung, no ka laʻana, hoʻohewa i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pale OLED i nā kīwī a manaʻo ʻia ʻoi aku ka kūpono no nā smartphones (e hoʻololi wikiwiki aʻe) e hāʻawi ana i ka makemake i nā pale QLED. ʻO ka poʻe e hoʻohana ana i ka ʻenehana OLED i nā televise ʻo LG, Sony a me Panasonic.

QLED

ʻO ka hope, hele mākou i nā TV QLED (a i ʻole QD-LED, Quantum Dot Emitting Diodes), kahi hoʻomaikaʻi hou ma LCD, e like me LED. ʻO kēia ka mea a mākou i kapa ai he pale kiko kiko: nā ʻāpana semiconductor liʻiliʻi loa, ʻaʻole ʻoi aku kona mau ana ma mua o nā nanometer ke anawaena. ʻAʻole ia he mea hou e like me ka MicroLED, no ka laʻana. ʻO kāna noi pāʻoihana mua i waena o 2013.

ʻO ka mea hoʻokūkū koʻikoʻi o OLED, ʻo QLED, pono pū kekahi kumu kukui. ʻO kēia mau kristal liʻiliʻi e loaʻa i ka ikehu a hoʻokuʻu i nā alapine māmā e hana i ke kiʻi ma ka pale, e hana hou i kahi ʻano nui o nā kala i nā kaiapuni me ka māmā a ʻoi aʻe paha.

ʻO Sony (Triluminos) kekahi o nā paionia i ka hana ʻana i nā kīwī kikoʻī quantum, ʻo LG (e pale ana iā OLED) he mau pale me kēia ʻenehana. Ma Brazil, akā naʻe, ʻoi aku ka maʻamau o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā ʻano like ʻole o nā TV Samsung me kahi pale QLED.

Ke hakakā nei ʻo LG a me Samsung no ka nānā ʻana o nā mea kūʻai. ʻO ka South Korea mua, LG, pale: 1) nā leo ʻeleʻele pololei loa a me ka hoʻohana haʻahaʻa o ka mana o ka OLED. Ke pale aku nei ka South Korea, ʻo Samsung: 2) Hōʻike ʻo QLED i nā kala ʻoi aʻe a ʻoi aku ka ʻōlinolino a me nā pale pale i ka "hopena kuni" (ʻoi aku ka kakaikahi ma nā televise).

ʻOiai nā leo ʻeleʻele ʻeleʻele, hiki i ka OLED ke waiho i nā hōʻailona ma nā mea hoʻohana pale kaumaha a me nā kiʻi paʻa, e like me nā mea pāʻani wikiō i nā makahiki. Ma kekahiʻaoʻao, hiki i nā QLED ke hōʻike i nā "ʻeleʻele hina."

Loaʻa ka pilikia ma nā kīwī maʻalahi (heluhelu haʻahaʻa). Hāʻawi nā hōʻike ʻoi aku ke kumu kūʻai (e like me ka Q9FN) i nā ʻenehana hou e like me ka dimming kūloko, kahi e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka hana luminance ma nā hōʻike ma ke kāohi ʻana i ke kukui hope e hōʻike i nā ʻeleʻele "ʻeleʻele maikaʻi". He mea paʻakikī ke hoʻokaʻawale iā lākou mai kahi OLED.

MICROLED

ʻO ka ʻōlelo hoʻohiki hou loa ʻo MicroLED. Hoʻohiki ka ʻenehana hou e hui pū i ka maikaʻi o LCD a me OLED, e hui pū ana i nā miliona o nā kukui microscopic hiki ke hoʻokuʻu i ko lākou kukui ponoʻī. Ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka pale LCD, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka mana a me ka ʻokoʻa, a ʻoi aku, hiki iā ia ke hoʻopuka i ka ʻōlinolino a ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi o ke ola ma mua o OLED.

Ma ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi papa inorganic (e kūʻē i nā LED organik, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi) a me nā LED liʻiliʻi, nā microLEDs, i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā OLED, hiki ke: 1) ʻoi aku ka mālamalama a lōʻihi; 2) liʻiliʻi i ka wela a i ʻole ka pohō.

Nā pale TFT LCD, IPS a me TN: ʻokoʻa

He huikau mau ke kumuhana o ka pale, AMOLED a i ʻole LCD. A, e nānā nui ana i ka pale LCD, aia kekahi mau ʻenehana i hoʻohui ʻia, e like me TFT, IPS a i ʻole TN. He aha ke ʻano o kēlā me kēia acronyms? A ma ka hana, he aha ka ʻokoʻa? Ua wehewehe kēia ʻatikala, ma ke ʻano maʻalahi, he aha ke kumu o kēia mau ʻenehana.

Ke kū nei kēia huikau, manaʻoʻiʻo au, no ke kumu kūʻai a me nā kumu mōʻaukala. I nā kikoʻī ʻenehana, ʻo nā mea hana maʻamau (ʻaʻole ia he lula) e hōʻike i ka acronym IPS i nā mea i loaʻa kēia mau panela.

E like me nā laʻana: ʻO LG, ka mea e pili nui ana i ka ʻenehana (ʻaʻole like me Samsung, i kālele ʻia ma AMOLED), ʻoiai e kau ana i nā peʻa e hōʻike ana i ka panel IPS ma nā kelepona. Eia kekahi, ʻo nā mākaʻikaʻi ʻoi loa, e like me ka Dell UltraSharp a me Apple Thunderbolt Display, ʻo ia ka IPS.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia nā kelepona haʻahaʻa loa (a i kēia manawa) me nā pale TFT i kapa ʻia. Hoʻohana ʻo Sony i nā pale i hoʻolaha ʻia ma ke ʻano he "TFT" i kāna mau kelepona kiʻekiʻe a hiki i ka Xperia Z1, nona ka pale maikaʻi maikaʻi ʻole me kahi kihi ʻike liʻiliʻi loa i hoʻohālikelike ʻia i kāna mau mea hoʻokūkū.

ʻO ka manawa kūpono, i ka hiki ʻana mai o ka Xperia Z2, ua hoʻolaha ʻia ʻo ia ʻo "IPS" a ʻaʻohe mea ʻoi aku ka ʻoi aku o ka hoʻohewa ʻana i nā pale ma nā kelepona ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o Sony. No laila e hele pū me aʻu.

He aha ka pale TFT LCD?

ʻO ka mea mua, ka wehewehe wehewehe: TFT LCD no ka Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display. Ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania, e unuhi au i kēia huaʻōlelo ʻē e like me "thin film transistor based liquid crystal display". ʻAʻole ʻōlelo nui kēlā, no laila e hoʻomaʻemaʻe kākou.

ʻO LCD āu i ʻike pono ai, ʻoiai inā ʻaʻole ʻoe i ʻike pehea e hana ai. ʻO kēia ka ʻenehana i hoʻohana nui ʻia e kāu pākaukau a i ʻole ka nānā ʻana i kāu kamepiula. Ua kapa ʻia ka ʻenehana "nā kristal wai", he mau mea ʻike maopopo i hiki ke lilo i opaque ke loaʻa iā lākou kahi au uila.

Aia kēia mau kristal i loko o ka pale, nona nā "pixels", i hana ʻia me nā kala ʻulaʻula, ʻōmaʻomaʻo a me ka uliuli (ke kūlana RGB). Kākoʻo kēlā me kēia kala i 256 mau ʻano leo. Ke hana nei i nā moʻolelo (2563), ʻo ia hoʻi, hiki i kēlā me kēia pika ke hana ma mua o 16,7 miliona mau kala.

Akā, pehea ke ʻano o nā kala o kēia mau kristal wai? Pono, pono lākou e loaʻa i kahi au uila e lilo i opaque, a mālama nā transistors i kēia: ʻo kēlā me kēia ke kuleana no kahi pika.

Aia ma ke kua o ka pale LCD ka mea i kapa ʻia he backlight, he kukui keʻokeʻo e hoʻomālamalama i ka pale. Ma nā ʻōlelo maʻalahi, e noʻonoʻo pū me aʻu: inā huki nā transistors a pau i kēia manawa, lilo nā kristal wai i opaque a pale i ka hele ʻana o ka mālamalama (ma nā huaʻōlelo ʻē aʻe, ʻeleʻele ka pale). Inā ʻaʻohe mea i hoʻopuka ʻia, e keʻokeʻo ka pale.

ʻO kēia kahi e komo ai ka TFT. I loko o nā pale TFT LCD, hoʻokomo ʻia nā miliona o nā transistors, nāna e hoʻomalu i kēlā me kēia o nā pika o ka panel, i loko o ka pale ma o ka waiho ʻana i kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni ʻoniʻoni o nā mea microscopic he mau nanometer a i ʻole micrometers mānoanoa (he kaula lauoho ma waena o 60 a me 120 micrometers mānoanoa. ). ʻAe, ua ʻike mua mākou i ke ʻano o ka "kiʻiʻoniʻoni" i loko o ka acronym TFT.

Aia i hea ka TN?

Ma ka hopena o ke kenekulia i hala, kokoke i ka TFT LCD panels i hoʻohana i kahi ʻenehana i kapa ʻia ʻo Twisted Nematic (TN) e hana. ʻO kona inoa ma muli o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, i mea e hoʻokuʻu ai ka mālamalama i loko o ka pika (ʻo ia hoʻi, e hana i ke kala keʻokeʻo), ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia ke aniani wai i kahi ʻano wili. Hoʻomanaʻo kēia kiʻi i kēlā mau kiʻi DNA āu i ʻike ai ma ke kula kiʻekiʻe:

Ke hoʻopuka ka transistor i ke au uila, "hāʻule ka hale." Lilo nā kelika wai i opaque a no laila, huli ka pixel i ʻeleʻele, a i ʻole hōʻike i kahi waihoʻoluʻu ma waena o ke keʻokeʻo a me ka ʻeleʻele, ma muli o ka ikehu i hoʻohana ʻia e ka transistor. E nānā hou i ke kiʻi a ʻike i ke ʻano o ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana o nā kristal wai: kū pololei i ka substrate.

Akā ua ʻike nā mea a pau he mau palena ko ka LCD e pili ana i ka TN. ʻAʻole i hana hou ʻia nā kala me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo like a aia nā pilikia me ke kihi ʻike: inā ʻaʻole ʻoe i hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia i mua o ka monitor, hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i nā ʻano like ʻole. ʻO ka ʻoi aku o ka ʻaoʻao 90° āu i kū ai i mua o ka monitor, ʻoi aku ka ʻino o nā kala.

ʻO ka ʻokoʻa mai nā panela IPS?

A laila ua manaʻo lākou: pehea inā ʻaʻole pono e hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia ke aniani wai? ʻO ia ka manawa i hana ai lākou i ka In-Plane Switching (IPS). I loko o ka IPS-based LCD panel, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia nā molekala aniani wai i ka pae, ʻo ia hoʻi, e like me ka substrate. ʻO ia hoʻi, noho mau lākou ma ka mokulele hoʻokahi ("In-Plane", loaʻa?). Hōʻike ʻia kēia kiʻi kiʻi a Sharp:

No ka mea e kokoke mau ana ke aniani wai i ka IPS, hoʻopau ke kihi ʻike i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana a ʻoi aku ka pono o ka hana kala. ʻO ka drawback, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia ʻenehana i ka hana ʻana, a ʻaʻole makemake nā mea hana a pau e hoʻolilo hou aku ma kahi papa IPS i ka hana ʻana i kahi kelepona maʻamau, kahi mea nui e mālama i nā kumukūʻai i ka liʻiliʻi.

Ke kiko nui

I ka pōkole, ʻo ka IPS wale nō ia: kahi ala ʻē aʻe o ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā molekala kristal wai. ʻO ka mea i loli ʻole e pili ana i ka TN ʻo nā transistors, nāna e hoʻomalu i nā pika: ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia lākou ma ke ʻano like, ʻo ia hoʻi, waiho ʻia ma ke ʻano he "kiʻi ʻoniʻoni". ʻAʻole kūpono ka ʻōlelo ʻana he ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka pale IPS ma mua o kahi TFT: e like me ka ʻōlelo ʻana "ʻoi aku ka hewa o Ubuntu ma mua o Linux".

No laila, hoʻohana nā pale IPS āu i ʻike ai i ka ʻenehana TFT. I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻo TFT kahi ʻenehana ākea loa, i hoʻohana ʻia i nā panela AMOLED. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka ʻike ʻana he panel ka TFT ʻaʻole ia e hōʻike i kona ʻano.

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