Consoles

Muaj tseeb koj nco qab Master System, Super Nintendo lossis Megadrive. Tab sis koj puas nco qab Atari 2600 lossis SG-1000? Retro gaming enthusiasts txuas ntxiv mus ua si cov qub consoles ntawm lawv so.

Tam sim no peb tuaj rau tiam tshiab ntawm kev ua si consoles nrog PlayStation, XBox thiab lwm yam. Lub ntiaj teb thawj lub tsev console hnub rov qab mus rau 1972: Magnavox Odyssey. Ib lub npe zoo rau me ntsis ua ntej. Nyob rau hauv nws ntau tshaj plaub caug xyoo ntawm lub neej, kev lag luam video game tau muab peb ob peb game consoles uas ob peb nco qab ... Koj puas nco qab?

Qhov zoo tshaj plaws retro thiab vintage consoles hauv keeb kwm

Keeb kwm nrog cov tsiaj ntawv loj yog sau los ntawm cov yeej, raws li peb txhua tus paub. Ib yam mus rau video games. Yog tias peb paub cov tuam txhab console tseem ceeb xws li Nintendo, Sony, Microsoft lossis SEGA lig, ua li cas rau lwm tus? Cov neeg uas tau sim txoj hauv kev tshiab lossis tau rov tsim lub log. Zoo, peb mam li qhia koj tam sim no.

Magnavox Odyssey, tso tawm xyoo 1972 hauv Asmeskas thiab 1973 hauv Tebchaws Europe, thawj zaug ntawm txhua qhov kev ua si consoles

Lub npe interstellar rau lub caij ntuj no-dawb console. Lub Odyssey yog thawj zaug ntawm thawj tiam ntawm kev ua si consoles thiab tau tsim los ntawm Magnavox. Lub thawv starched no muaj daim npav system thiab txuas nrog lub TV. Lub console tau qhia qhov kev ua si dub thiab dawb. Cov neeg ua si tso ib txheej ntawm cov yas rau ntawm qhov screen thiab siv cov khawm tig kom txav cov dots.

Fairchild Channel F, tau tsim tawm xyoo 1976 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Fairchild Channel F game console (tseem hu ua Video Entertainment System lossis VES) tau tso tawm thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1976 hauv Tebchaws Meskas thiab muag rau $ 170. Nws yog thawj video game console nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no uas muaj ib tug microprocessor thiab raws li ib tug cartridge system.

Atari 2600, tso tawm xyoo 1977 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Lub Atari 2600 (los yog Atari VCS) yog lub thib ob-tiam console txij thaum Lub Kaum Hli 1977. Thaum lub sijhawm, nws muag rau txog $ 199, thiab tau nruab nrog lub joystick thiab kev sib ntaus sib tua ("Combat"). Lub Atari 2600 tau dhau los ua ib qho ntawm cov kev ua yeeb yaj kiab nrov tshaj plaws ntawm nws tiam (nws tsoo cov ntaub ntawv rau kev ua neej nyob hauv Tebchaws Europe) thiab cim qhov pib ntawm kev lag luam loj rau kev ua si video.

Lub Intellivision, launched hauv 1980 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Tsim los ntawm Mattel hauv xyoo 1979, Intellivision game console (kev cog lus ntawm Intelligent thiab TV) yog tus neeg sib tw ncaj qha ntawm Atari 2600. Nws tau mus muag hauv Tebchaws Meskas xyoo 1980 ntawm tus nqi ntawm $ 299 thiab muaj ib qho kev ua si: Las Vegas BlackJack .

Lub Sega SG-1000, tso tawm xyoo 1981 hauv Nyiv

Lub SG 1000, lossis Sega Game 1000, yog lub cim thib peb uas tsim los ntawm Nyij Pooj tshaj tawm SEGA, cim nws nkag mus rau hauv tsev video game khw.

Lub Colecovision, launched hauv 1982 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Tus nqi qis qis $ 399 thaum lub sijhawm, qhov kev ua si console no yog lub cim thib ob uas tsim los ntawm Connecticut Leather Company. Nws cov duab thiab kev tswj hwm kev ua si zoo ib yam li cov kev ua si arcade ntawm xyoo 80s. Kwv yees li 400 lub npe video game tau tso tawm rau hauv daim cartridges thoob plaws hauv nws lub neej.

Lub Atari 5200, tso tawm xyoo 1982 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Qhov thib ob tiam game console tau tsim los sib tw nrog nws cov thawj coj Intellivision thiab ColecoVision, qhov nrov tshaj plaws game consoles ntawm lub khw thiab, qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws, qhov pheej yig tshaj. Lub Atari 5200, uas tsis tau tso tawm hauv Fabkis, xav ua kom pom nws qhov kev tsim kho tshiab los ntawm nws 4 qhov chaw nres nkoj thiab cov tub rau khoom. Txawm li cas los, lub console ua tsis tau tejyam nyuaj siab.

SNK's Neo-Geo, tso tawm xyoo 1991 hauv Nyij Pooj, Royce ntawm game consoles!

Kuj hu ua NeoGeo Advanced Entertainment System, Neo-Geo console zoo ib yam rau Neo-Geo MVS arcade system. Lawv lub tsev qiv ntawv 2D game yog tsom rau kev sib ntaus sib tua ua si thiab yog qhov zoo. Lub ntsej muag, cov pej xeem suav hais tias nws yog "khoom kim heev" console.

Panasonic's 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, tso tawm xyoo 1993 hauv Tebchaws Meskas

Lub console no, nrog rau niaj hnub zoo dua li nws cov acolytes, ua raws li 3DO (3D Objects) tus qauv tsim los ntawm Lub Tuam Txhab 3DO, ib lub tuam txhab luam tawm yeeb yaj kiab Asmeskas. Nws qhov kev daws teeb meem siab tshaj plaws yog 320 × 240 hauv 16 lab xim, thiab nws txhawb qee qhov teebmeem 3D. Nws muaj ib qho chaw nres nkoj joystick, tab sis tso cai rau 8 lwm tus los ua cascaded. Nws tus nqi? 700 las.

Jaguar, launched nyob rau hauv 1993 nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States

Txawm hais tias nws lub npe npau suav thiab cov thev naus laus zis siab heev, Jaguar tsis nyob ntev ntawm kev ua lag luam. Qhov kawg cartridge console tso tawm los ntawm Atari muaj cov tsev qiv ntawv game tsawg, uas tuaj yeem piav qhia nws qhov ua tsis tiav.

Nuon – VM Labs – 2000

Thaum ntxov 2000s, Nuon tau tawm los, VM Labs thev naus laus zis tsim los ntawm tus txiv neej qub Atari, uas tso cai rau cov yeeb yaj kiab ntxiv rau DVD player. Rau cov neeg uas nco qab, Jeff Minter yog ib qho ntawm lawv cov software tsim tawm. Nws yog lub luag haujlwm rau Tempest thiab tag nrho nws cov kev sib txawv thiab Kev Tawm Tsam ntawm Mutant Camels. Yog tias lub tswv yim txaus nyiam ntawm daim ntawv, tsuas yog Toshiba thiab Samsung dhia ntawm bandwagon. Tab sis piv rau Nintendo 64, thiab tshwj xeeb tshaj yog PlayStation 2 thiab Dreamcast, nws nyuaj rau kev nce foothold. Tsuas yog 8 qhov kev ua si raug tso tawm rau qhov kev txhawb nqa no, suav nrog Tempest 3000 lossis Space Invaders XL

Microvision – MB – 1979

Game Boy (uas nyuam qhuav dhau los 30) feem ntau yuam kev xav tias yog thawj lub console nrog cov khoom sib hloov tau. Zoo, nws tau ua ntej los ntawm MB's Microvision (tom qab los ua Vectrex) los ntawm ze li ib xyoo caum. Lub tshuab ntev no twb tau tso cai rau kev txaus siab rau kev ua si sib txawv thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1979. Qhov sib txawv yog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg, vim hais tias ntawm kev tsim khoom tsis zoo uas txwv lub neej ntawm lub vijtsam, cov khoom siv thiab cov keyboard, thiab nws 12 lub npe tso tawm hauv plaub xyoos, nws yog tsis yog tog. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tuaj yeem khav theeb ua thawj.

Phantom - Infinium Labs - Tso tseg

Cia peb dag me ntsis hauv qhov qeb duas no thiab hais txog Phantom, "console" uas tsis tau pom lub teeb ntawm hnub tab sis ua rau gamers npau suav ntawm kev tshaj tawm tshiab hauv xyoo 2003. Cov lus hais los rau hauv siab vim tias nws yog siab tshaj txhua lub PC muaj peev xwm khiav lub kev ua si ntawm lub sijhawm thiab yav tom ntej. Tab sis, thiab qhov no yog nws cov ntsiab lus muaj zog raws li nws cov neeg tsim qauv, nws tso cai rau kev nkag mus rau kev ua si ntawm kev thov, paub zoo dua li kev ua si hauv huab, ua tsaug rau nws lub zog tsav thiab kev sib txuas hauv Is Taws Nem. Nyob rau hauv 2003. Yog li peb nyob nraum txoj kev ua ntej ntawm OnLive, uas kuj screwed. Qhov tseeb, tom qab tsis pom cov neeg ua lag luam vwm txaus los tso nyiaj $ 30 lab xav tau rau txoj haujlwm, Phantom tau tso rau so thiab Infinium Labs, txij li hloov npe hu ua Phantom Entertainment, zeroed rau ntawm nws cov keyboards los tso rau ntawm koj ceg tawv. Lub vev xaib tseem nyob online, thiab cov khoom siv no tseem tuaj yeem yuav. Tab sis ceev faj, nws tsis tau hloov kho txij li xyoo 2011.

Gizmondo – Tiger Telematics – 2005

Nws yog lub tshuab uas muag peb npau suav ua ntej tawg hauv huab cua, zoo li kev sib tsoo zoo kawg nkaus ntawm Ferrari Enzo hauv Malibu, uas qhia txog kev ua txhaum cai thiab kev dag ntxias loj heev ntawm cov thawj coj ntawm Tiger Telematics. Lub tuam txhab Swedish no muaj, ntawm daim ntawv, lub tshuab nqa tau zoo heev. Lub vijtsam zoo, ntau cov nyees khawm ua haujlwm uas qhia txog kev ua si zoo, thiab cov yam ntxwv txias zoo li GPS. Lub tswv yim zoo nkauj heev nyiam cov tub ua lag luam, uas tau pab ntau lab. Tiger Telematics tuaj yeem them cov ntawv tso cai tsim nyog rau kev ua tiav ntawm lub tshuab tshiab zoo li FIFA lossis SSX. Tab sis tsis ntev tom qab lub console tau tshaj tawm, thaum Lub Kaum Hli 2005, Swedish tabloid qhia tias lub tuam txhab muaj kev sib raug zoo rau cov mafia hauv zos. Tom qab ntawd, thaum Lub Ob Hlis 2006, nto moo Ferrari kev sib tsoo nrog Stefan Eriksson, ib tus thawj coj ntawm Gizmondo Europe, ntawm lub nkoj. Hmoov tsis zoo rau nws, qhov kev tshawb nrhiav ntawm qhov xwm txheej tau nthuav tawm tag nrho cov kev tsis sib haum xeeb thiab Eriksson tau raug kaw hauv tsev loj cuj nrog rau lwm tus thawj coj raug liam tias kev dag ntxias thiab kev zam se. Tsuas yog 14 qhov kev ua si raug tso tawm, ntau dua ib nrab ntawm cov uas tsuas yog tso tawm thaum lub sijhawm tso tawm.

Playdia – Bandai – 1994

Lub 90s yog lub sijhawm zoo rau kev txhim kho consoles ntawm txhua yam. Bandai, uas muaj cov ntawv tso cai muaj kua dej zoo li Dragon Ball, tau txiav txim siab nkag mus rau hauv qhov kev ua si. Qhov tshwm sim yog Playdia, lub tshuab multimedia lom zem rau cov tub ntxhais hluas tsis yog qhov tseeb game console. Qhov tseeb, qhov no yog lo lus tsim nyog tshaj plaws, txij li ntawm peb caug lub npe tso tawm, yuav luag tag nrho cov ntawm lawv yog cov yeeb yaj kiab sib tham raws li cov ntawv tso cai paub zoo xws li Dragon Ball, Sailor Moon lossis Kamen Rider. Tsis muaj dab tsi zoo siab heev, tshwj tsis yog tias lub console tuaj nrog infrared wireless controller, thiab qhov no, rov qab rau xyoo 1994.

Pippin - Apple Bandai - 1996

Nws tsis muaj qhov zais cia tias tom qab Steve Jobs raug yuam kom tawm hauv lub tuam txhab uas nws tau koom ua ke hauv xyoo 1985, txhua yam poob rau hauv dej. Tag nrho cov tshuab tau tsim. Ntawm lawv, Newton, ib ntsiav tshuaj thaum ntxov uas tsuas yog ua haujlwm ib nrab; tshuab luam ntawv; koob yees duab; thiab nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm nws tag nrho, ib tug game console. Tsim los ntawm kev koom tes nrog Bandai, tom kawg yog lub luag haujlwm rau kev tsim ntawm nws tus kheej, thaum Apple muab cov khoom siv thiab kev ua haujlwm (System 7 rau cov neeg paub). Rau Bandai, nws yog lub sijhawm los nqis peev rau Apple lub npe nrov, thaum rau Apple nws yog lub sijhawm los tsim ib qho yooj yim $ 500 Macintosh. Hmoov tsis, tsis muaj dab tsi mus raws li kev npaj. Hnub tso tawm hauv Nyij Pooj tau ncua rau lub hlis thiab nws txwv tsis pub tus nqi rau lub game console tiv thaiv nws los ntawm kev nce foothold hauv kev ua lag luam no los ntawm Nintendo, Sony thiab SEGA. Tsawg dua 80 qhov kev ua si raug tso tawm hauv Nyij Pooj thiab txog 18 hauv Tebchaws Meskas. Qhov tsis ua tiav tiag tiag, tsuas yog 42.000 daim ntawv raug muag.

Super A'Can - Funtech - 1995

Southeast Asia yog qhov paub zoo tshaj plaws rau nws txoj kev lag luam dub. Cov kev ua si raug cai lossis cov consoles kim heev uas gamers hauv cov teb no pom tias nws muaj txiaj ntsig ntau dua los yuav cov ntawv luam tawm tsis raug cai lossis clone. Tab sis Funtech, lub tuam txhab los ntawm Taiwan, xav sim nws hauv 90s. Qhov tshwm sim ntawm qhov kev sim no yog Super A'Can, 16-ntsis console nrog tus qauv tsim zoo ib yam li Super NES, tab sis uas tau muag thaum Lub Kaum Hli. Xyoo 1995, nyob nruab nrab ntawm 32-ntsis tsov rog. Nws tsis muaj caij nyoog thiab tsuas yog 12 qhov kev ua si raug tso tawm. Kev poob nyiaj ntau txog $ 6 lab, ua rau kev kaw ntawm Funtech, uas rhuav tshem tag nrho nws cov khoom siv thaum tsim khoom thiab muag cov khoom seem rau Tebchaws Meskas.

Loopy - Casio - 1995

Lub game console tsom rau cov tub ntxhais kawm theem siab / tsev kawm theem siab? Casio tau ua nws hauv 1995. Qhov thib ob console los ntawm cov chaw tsim khoom paub zoo tshaj plaws rau nws lub laij lej yog txoj hauv kev ua ntej ntawm nws lub sijhawm hais txog kev ua haujlwm. Lub Loopy muaj lub tshuab luam ntawv xim xim uas tso cai rau koj luam koj tus kheej cov ntawv nplaum los ntawm cov screenshots ntawm ib qho ntawm kaum tawm kev ua si. Pom tseeb, nws yog kev sib tw nrog ntau tus purikura uas muaj ntau nyob hauv Nyij Pooj uas Casio ua lawv lub console. Tab sis tau kawg, ntawm cov laus tab sis sib sau ua ke 16-ntsis thiab kev vam meej ntawm 32-ntsis, Loopy tsis kav ntev txawm tias nws lub tswv yim zoo bogus. Yog, vim li cas cov poj niam yuav tsum tau khom rau lub console uas tsis zoo, zoo li nws tsis muaj kev nkag mus rau lwm tus?

PEAK – SEGA – 1993

Thaum cov chaw tsim khoom loj tsom rau cov menyuam yaus, koj tau txais SEGA PEAK. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm Chiv Keeb nrog qee qhov tshwj xeeb tsim los rau kev kawm gaming. Pib nrog Magic Pen, ib lub cwj mem xiav loj uas txuas rau lub hauv paus ntawm lub console daj daj. Cov cartridges, hu ua "Storyware," tau zoo li cov menyuam yaus phau ntawv dab neeg zoo li ntau lwm tus. Phau ntawv, uas muaj cov thawv sib tham sib, tau muab tso rau hauv sab sauv ntawm lub console. Los ntawm nias lub stylus, koj tuaj yeem kos lossis ua qee yam ua. Tsis tas li ntawd, cov thawv hloov nrog txhua nplooj ntawv uas tau tig. Txawm hais tias nws txoj kev vam meej yog qhov tseem ceeb hauv Nyij Pooj (ntau tshaj 3 lab units muag), ob peb nco qab tau hla nws txoj kev.

FM Towns Marty – Fujitsu – 1993

Thawj 32-ntsis console hauv keeb kwm yog, qhov tseeb, Japanese, tab sis nws tsis yog PlayStation, nyob deb ntawm nws. Peb zoo li xav tias 32-ntsis consoles tau yug los nrog cov neeg uas ua rau lawv ua tiav. Tsis zoo li no. Thawj console ntawm tiam no los ntawm cov pioneer ntawm computers nyob rau hauv Nyiv, Fujitsu. Tom qab qhov tseem ceeb thiab kev lag luam ua tiav ntawm FM7, lub tuam txhab Nyij Pooj tau txiav txim siab tsim lub khoos phis tawj tshiab, FM Towns, sib tw nrog NEC PC-98. Yog li, xav txog qhov loj ntawm lub console ua lag luam, cov thawj coj txiav txim siab los ua ib qho version rau lub tsev consoles. Qhov tshwm sim yog FM Towns Marty. Nruab nrog lub CD-ROM tsav rau kev ua si thiab lub floppy drive rau thaub qab (peb tsis tuaj yeem nkaum nws lub hauv paus), qhov 32-ntsis console no tau sib xws nrog txhua lub FM Towns games. Hmoov tsis zoo, ib yam li lub khoos phis tawj, nws tsis yog qhov ua tau zoo txawm tias qhov thib ob version nrog cov xim grey tsaus. Tso tawm thaum Lub Ob Hlis 1993, tsuas yog FM Towns Marty album yog thawj zaug hauv nws pawg, txawm tias qhov no tseem muaj kev sib cav.

Channel F – Fairchild – 1976

Pioneer yog tias muaj, Fairchild Channel F yog ib qho ntawm thawj, yog tias tsis yog thawj zaug, siv ROM-raws li cartridges. Kuj tseem hu ua Fairchild Video Entertainment System, lub tshuab no tau tso tawm xyoo 1976, ua ntej Atari 2600 los ntawm kaum lub hlis. Jerry Lawson, ib tug ntawm cov engineers, yog lub luag hauj lwm los tsim cov programmable cartridges, uas tseem siv rau qee yam hauv Nintendo Hloov hnub no. Txawm hais tias tus tswj hwm coj txawv txawv thiab ntev, Canal F tau tswj xyuas qhov zoo rau nws tus kheej hauv kev lag luam incipient. Nrog rau kev ua si zoo dua li Odyssey, piv txwv li, nws txoj kev vam meej tau lees paub.

GX-4000 – Amstrad – 1990

Thaum lub chaw tsim khoom lag luam microcomputer hauv Tebchaws Europe xav tias lub ntiaj teb ntawm consoles yuav tsum zoo sib xws, kev lag luam kev sib tsoo uas yog Amstrad's GX-4000 tshwm sim. Alan Qab Zib, tus thawj coj ntawm lub tuam txhab British, xav nkag mus rau hauv chav. Yuav ua li cas zoo dua ua nws dua nrog lub game console? Tsis tas li ntawd, nrog rau ntau yam ntawm cov khoos phis tawj, nws txaus los hloov ib qho ntawm lawv thiab qhov ntawd yog nws. Ib tug xav tias qhov kev xav ntau dua los yog tsawg dua qhov qub thaum ib tug pom qhov tshwm sim. Tso tawm xyoo 1990, GX-4000 tsis muaj dab tsi ntau tshaj li Amstrad CPC Plus 4 yam tsis muaj keyboard. Cartridge games tau sib xws tab sis tsis yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws. Nrov feem ntau nyob rau hauv cov teb chaws Europe, cov microcomputers no tau ua rau cov hnub zoo nkauj ntawm Fabkis ua si nrog kev ua si ntawm Loriciels lossis Infogrames. Tab sis tsis yog GX-4000, uas tau tso tseg tsawg dua ib xyoos tom qab nws tso tawm.

PC-FX – NEC – 1994

Lub npe nrov Tetsujin Project, los sib tw nrog 32 cov khoom ntawm lub sijhawm, kuj muaj cov haujlwm hnyav ntawm kev ua tiav ib qho ntawm cov consoles zoo tshaj plaws hauv keeb kwm, PC Cav (lossis TurbografX-16 hauv peb lub tebchaws). Peb tsis paub yog tias qhov kev ntxhov siab no tau txais qhov zoo dua ntawm cov neeg tsim qauv 'kev txawj ntse lossis yog lub tswv yim drifted thaum lub sijhawm tsim khoom, tab sis lub console uas pom lub teeb ntawm lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1994 zoo li PC thiab ris lub npe PC-FX. Meant yuav tsum tau txhim kho tib yam li lub computer, lub tshuab sai sai paled nyob rau hauv kev sib piv rau cov kev sib tw. Tseeb tiag, tsis muaj 3D nti sab hauv thiab, yog li ntawd, tsis muaj ntau yam ntawm qhov screen. Qhov kev ua tsis tiav no yuav yog vim li cas rau PC-FX thiab nws cov 62 kev ua si uas tsim los ntawm cov yeeb yaj kiab sib tham sib.

Zodiac – Tapwave – 2003

Lwm tus neeg raug tsim txom hauv Internet npuas ntawm 2000s thaum ntxov, lub Zodiac ntawm Tapwave (tsim los ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm qub Palm), ib tus neeg nyob hauv Google hauv Mountain View. Qhov no niaj hnub zoo li portable console (hauv nws qhov thib ob version hauv daim duab) tau tso tawm xyoo 2003 thiab, raws li xav tau, nws suav nrog Palm operating system. Cov kev ua si tuaj yeem thauj khoom hauv ob txoj hauv kev: los ntawm kev txuas lub tshuab rau lub computer thiab luam cov ntsiab lus ntawm PC mus rau lub console, lossis los ntawm kev tau txais cov kev ua si ntawm SD card. Txawm hais tias muaj qee qhov kev hloov pauv zoo li Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4 lossis Doom II, nws yog Sony's PSP uas yuav cuam tshuam nws mus rau qhov chaw nkaum nws tag nrho.

N-Gage - Nokia - 2003

Cia peb xaus qhov kev tshuaj xyuas ntawm cov consoles me me los ntawm kev hais txog Nokia lub xov tooj ib nrab, ib nrab ntawm lub console, N-Gage. Mobile gaming tau nyob ib ncig ntawm lub sijhawm ntev thiab cov chaw tsim khoom Finnish tau coj kom zoo dua ntawm nws. Thaum nws tawm hauv xyoo 2003, N-Gage yog qhov tshwj xeeb. Txawm hais tias nws zoo nkauj heev tsim, lub cuab yeej yuav tsum tau tuav ntawm nws ntug thaum sib tham hauv xov tooj. Tab sis ergonomic tsis muaj tseeb tsis tau xaus rau ntawd. Txhawm rau ntxig cov cartridges hauv thawj tus qauv, lub roj teeb yuav tsum tau muab tshem tawm. Nws zoo li npau suav. Hmoov zoo, qhov tsis zoo no tau kho hauv N-Gage QD ib xyoos tom qab. Lub tshuab no tau pom zoo hloov pauv ntawm cov ntawv tso cai nrov ntawm lub sijhawm xws li Worms, Tomb Raider, Pandemonium lossis Monkey Ball. Yooj yim mus nrhiav hnub no, nws yuav tsum txaus siab rau cov neeg sau khoom xav tau kev xav paub.

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