Internet

Takulandirani ku mbiri yakale ya intaneti.

Kale kwambiri makompyuta asanayambe kupangidwa, asayansi ndi olemba ankaganiza kuti anthu akutali azilankhulana nthawi yomweyo. Telegraph idayamba ulendowu, ndipo chingwe choyamba chodutsa panyanja iyi chidayikidwa mu 1858.

Njira yoyamba yolumikizira mafoni yodutsa m'nyanja ya Atlantic, yochokera ku Scotland kupita kugombe la Canada, inatsegulidwa mu 1956. Chifunirocho chinali chidakalipo chifukwa cha luso la makompyuta la panthawiyo. Ambiri adatengabe chipinda chonse ndipo analibe mawonekedwe owoneka, koma anali akugwira ntchito kale ndi malo ofikira akutali mnyumba yomweyo. Zinali ndi zambiri zoti zisinthike.

Ndani anayambitsa Intaneti?

Tili m’zaka za m’ma 50 ku United States. Ndi nthawi ya Cold War, kulimbana kwamalingaliro ndi sayansi pakati pa bloc yoimiridwa ndi aku America ndi yomwe imatsogozedwa ndi Soviet Union. Kupita patsogolo kolimbana ndi mdani kunali chigonjetso chachikulu, monga mpikisano wamlengalenga. Pachifukwa ichi, Purezidenti Eisenhower adapanga Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) mu 1958. Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake, adapeza D, ya Chitetezo, ndipo adakhala DARPA. Bungweli linagwirizana ndi akatswiri a maphunziro ndi mafakitale kuti apange ukadaulo m'magawo osiyanasiyana, osati ankhondo okha.

Mmodzi mwa apainiya a gawo la kompyuta la ARPA anali JCR Licklider, wochokera ku Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, ndipo adalemba ganyu pambuyo pofotokoza za galactic network ya makompyuta omwe deta iliyonse ingapezeke. Iye anabzala mbewu za zonsezi mu bungwe.

Kupititsa patsogolo kwina kwakukulu kunali kupanga makina osinthira paketi, njira yosinthira deta pakati pa makina. Mayunitsi azidziwitso, kapena mapaketi, amatumizidwa imodzi ndi imodzi kudzera pa netiweki. Dongosololi linali lothamanga kwambiri kuposa mayendedwe ozungulira ndipo limathandizira malo osiyanasiyana, osati kungoloza. Kafukufukuyu adachitidwa ndi magulu ofanana, monga Paul Baran wa RAND Institute, Donald Davies ndi Roger Scantlebury wa UK National Physical Laboratory, ndi Lawrence Roberts wa ARPA.

Palinso kuphunzira ndi kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo, mfundo zodutsana ndi chidziwitso. Iwo ndi milatho pakati pa makina omwe amalankhulana wina ndi mzake komanso amagwira ntchito ngati malo olamulira, kuti chidziwitsocho chisatayike paulendo ndipo kufalitsa konse kuyenera kuyambiranso. Zolumikizana zonse zidapangidwa pansi pa chingwe, ndipo maziko ankhondo ndi mabungwe ofufuza anali oyamba chifukwa anali ndi dongosololi.

ARPANET imabadwa

Mu February 1966, nkhani zinayamba za netiweki ya ARPA, kapena ARPANET. Chotsatira chinali kupanga ma IMPs, malo opangira mauthenga. Ndiwo ma node apakatikati, omwe angagwirizane ndi mfundo za intaneti. Mutha kuwatcha agogo a ma routers. Koma chirichonse chinali chatsopano kwambiri kuti kugwirizana koyamba kwa maukonde sikunakhazikitsidwe mpaka October 29, 1969. Izo zinachitika pakati pa UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, ndi Stanford Research Institute, pafupifupi 650 makilomita kutali.

Uthenga woyamba anasinthanitsa adzakhala uthenga malowedwe ndipo anapita mwachilungamo bwino. Zilembo ziwiri zoyambirira zidadziwika mbali inayo, koma dongosololi lidachoka pa intaneti. Ndiko kulondola: ili ndi tsiku la kulumikizana koyamba komanso mkangano woyamba. Ndipo liwu loyamba lofalitsidwa linali ... "izo".

ARPANET network ya node yoyamba inali yokonzeka kumapeto kwa chaka chimenecho ndipo inali ikugwira ntchito bwino, ikugwirizanitsa mfundo ziwiri zomwe tazitchula pamwambapa, University of California ku Santa Barbara ndi University of Utah School of Informatics, kutali pang'ono, ku Salt. Lake City. ARPANET ndiye woyamba wa zomwe timatcha intaneti.

Ndipo ngakhale chizindikiro choyambira chinali chankhondo, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti ukadaulo wonse ukhale wamaphunziro. Pali nthano yakuti ARPANET inali njira yopulumutsira deta pazochitika za nyukiliya, koma chikhumbo chachikulu chinali chakuti asayansi azilankhulana ndikufupikitsa mtunda.

Kulitsani ndi kusinthika

Mu 71, pali kale mfundo 15 pamanetiweki, gawo lomwe ndizotheka chifukwa cha chitukuko cha PNC. Network Control Protocol inali protocol yoyamba ya seva ya ARPANET ndipo idatanthauzira njira yonse yolumikizirana pakati pa mfundo ziwiri. Zinali zomwe zinaloleza kuyanjana kowonjezereka, monga kugawana mafayilo ndi kugwiritsa ntchito kutali kwa makina akutali.

Mu Okutobala 72, chiwonetsero choyamba chapagulu cha ARPANET chidachitika ndi Robert Kahn pamwambo wamakompyuta. Chaka chimenecho imelo idapangidwa, njira yosavuta yosinthira mauthenga omwe takambirana kale munjira. Panthawiyo, panali mfundo 29 zomwe zikugwirizana.

Ndi chaka chomwe tikuwona ulalo woyamba wa transatlantic, pakati pa ARPANET ndi dongosolo la Norwegian NORSAR, kudzera pa satellite. Posakhalitsa, kugwirizana kwa London kunabwera. Chifukwa chake lingaliro loti dziko lapansi limafunikira maukonde omanga otseguka. Zimamveka padziko lonse lapansi, chifukwa tikapanda kutero tikadakhala ndi timagulu tating'ono tating'ono tating'ono tating'onoting'ono, koma osati kwa wina ndi mnzake komanso aliyense wokhala ndi zomangamanga ndi ma protocol osiyanasiyana. Zingakhale ntchito yaikulu kuzigwirizanitsa zonse pamodzi.

Koma panali vuto: protocol ya NCP inali yosakwanira pakusinthanitsa kotseguka kwa mapaketi pakati pa maukonde osiyanasiyana. Ndipamene Vint Cerf ndi Robert Kahn anayamba kugwira ntchito yolowa m'malo.

Pulojekiti ina ya mbali ndi Efaneti, yomwe idapangidwa ku Xerox Parc yodziwika bwino mu 73. Pakali pano ndi imodzi mwamagawo olumikizana ndi data, ndipo idayamba ngati matanthauzidwe a zingwe zamagetsi ndi ma siginecha a kulumikizana kwanuko. Engineer Bob Metcalfe adachoka ku Xerox kumapeto kwa zaka khumi kuti apange mgwirizano ndikupangitsa makampani kuti agwiritse ntchito muyezo. Chabwino, wapambana.

Mu 1975, ARPANET imatengedwa kuti ikugwira ntchito ndipo ili ndi makina 57. M’chaka chimenechinso ndi pamene bungwe loona zachitetezo la ku United States limayang’anira ntchitoyi. Dziwani kuti intaneti ilibe malingaliro amalonda, ankhondo ndi asayansi okha. Kukambitsirana kwaumwini sikulimbikitsidwa, koma sikuletsedwanso.

Kusintha kwa TCP/IP

Kenako TCP/IP, kapena Transmission Control Protocol bar Internet Protocol, idabadwa. Unali ndipo ukadali muyeso wolumikizirana pazida, gulu la zigawo zomwe zimakhazikitsa kulumikizanaku popanda kumanganso maukonde onse opangidwa mpaka pamenepo.

IP ndiye gawo la adilesi yapaketi ya otumiza ndi olandila. Ndikudziwa kuti zonsezi ndizovuta, koma mutu wathu pano ndi wosiyana.

Pa Januware 1, 1983, ARPANET idasintha mwalamulo protocol kuchokera ku NCP kupita ku TCP/IP pamwambo wina wapaintaneti. Ndipo omwe ali ndi udindo Robert Kahn ndi Vint Cerf amaika mayina awo m'mbiri ya teknoloji kwamuyaya. Chaka chotsatira, maukondewo amagawanika pawiri. Gawo lolumikizana ndikusinthana mafayilo ankhondo, MILNET, ndi gawo lachitukuko ndi lasayansi lomwe limatchedwabe ARPANET, koma popanda ma node ena oyambira. Zinali zoonekeratu kuti sadzakhala yekha.

ikani zonse pamodzi

Pofika m'chaka cha 1985, intaneti inali itakhazikitsidwa kale ngati njira yolumikizirana pakati pa ofufuza ndi omanga, koma dzinali silinayambe kugwiritsidwa ntchito mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka khumi, pamene maukonde anayamba kupanga dongosolo limodzi. Pang'ono ndi pang'ono, zimatuluka m'mayunivesite ndikuyamba kutengedwa ndi bizinesi ndipo, potsiriza, ndi anthu owononga.

Chifukwa chake tikuwona kuphulika kwa maukonde ang'onoang'ono omwe anali kale ndi gulu laling'ono lomwe limayang'ana china chake. Izi ndizochitika za CSNet, zomwe zidasonkhanitsa magulu ofufuza za sayansi yamakompyuta ndipo inali imodzi mwa njira zoyamba zasayansi. Kapena Usenet, yomwe inali kalambulabwalo wa zokambirana kapena magulu ankhani ndipo idapangidwa mu 1979.

Ndipo Bitnet, yomwe idapangidwa mu 81 kuti itumize maimelo ndi mafayilo, ndipo idalumikiza mayunivesite opitilira 2500 padziko lonse lapansi. Wina wotchuka ndi NSFNET, wochokera ku bungwe la sayansi la ku America lomwelo lomwe linkayang'anira CSNet, kuti athandize ofufuza kupeza makompyuta apamwamba ndi ma database. Iye anali m'modzi mwa olimbikitsa kwambiri muyezo woperekedwa ndi ARPANET ndipo adathandizira kufalitsa kukhazikitsa ma seva. Izi zimafika pachimake pakupangidwa kwa nsana ya NSFNET, yomwe inali 56 kbps.

Ndipo, zowona, tikukamba zambiri za United States, koma mayiko angapo adasunga maukonde amkati ofanana ndikukulitsidwa ku TCP/IP kenako adayenda mulingo wa WWW pakapita nthawi. Pali MINITEL yaku France, mwachitsanzo, yomwe idawulutsidwa mpaka 2012.

Zaka za m'ma 80 zimathandizira kukulitsa intaneti yachinyamatayo ndikulimbitsa zida zolumikizirana pakati pa ma node, makamaka kukonza zipata ndi ma router amtsogolo. Mu theka loyamba la zaka khumi, makompyuta adabadwa ndi IBM PC ndi Macintosh. Ndipo ma protocol ena adayamba kutengera ntchito zosiyanasiyana.

Anthu ambiri adagwiritsa ntchito File Transfer Protocol, FTP yabwino yakale, kuti atsitse mtundu wamba. Ukadaulo wa DNS, womwe ndi njira yomasulira domain kukhala adilesi ya IP, idawonekeranso m'ma 80s ndipo idakhazikitsidwa pang'onopang'ono.

Pakati pa 87 ndi 91, intaneti imatulutsidwa kuti igwiritse ntchito malonda ku United States, m'malo mwa ARPANET ndi NSFNET backbones, ndi opereka apadera ndi malo atsopano opezera maukonde kunja kwa mayunivesite ndi magulu ankhondo. Koma ndi ochepa omwe ali ndi chidwi ndi ochepa omwe amawona zotheka. Chinachake chinali kusowa chothandizira kuyenda kosavuta komanso kutchuka.

Kusintha kwa WWW

Mfundo yotsatira paulendo wathu ndi CERN, labotale yofufuza zanyukiliya yaku Europe. Mu 1989, Timothy Berners-Lee, kapena Tim, ankafuna kusintha kusinthana zikalata pakati pa ogwiritsa ntchito ndi injiniya Robert Cailliau. Ingoganizirani dongosolo loti mupeze zambiri zokhudzana ndi kulumikizana pakati pa makompyuta onse olumikizidwa ndikusinthanitsa mafayilo mosavuta.

Njira yothetsera vutoli inali kugwiritsa ntchito luso limene linalipo kale koma lachikale lotchedwa hypertext. Ndiko kulondola, mawu olumikizidwa olumikizidwa kapena zithunzi zomwe zimakufikitsani kumalo ena pa intaneti pakufunika. Bwana wa Tim sanali wofunitsitsa kwambiri pa lingalirolo ndipo anaona kuti siliri lomveka bwino, choncho ntchitoyo inayenera kukhwima.

Bwanji ngati nkhaniyo inali yabwino? Mu 1990, panali "zokha" zotsogola zitatu izi: ma URL, kapena ma adilesi apadera ozindikiritsa komwe masamba amayambira. HTTP, kapena hypertext transfer protocol, yomwe ndi njira yolumikizirana, ndi HTML, yomwe ndi mtundu womwe wasankhidwa kuti upangire zomwe zili. Chifukwa chake adabadwa Webusaiti Yadziko Lonse, kapena WWW, dzina lopangidwa ndi iye ndipo tidamasulira kuti World Wide Web.

Tim amawona malo okhazikika, kotero palibe chilolezo chomwe chingafunike kuti atumize, osasiyapo gawo lapakati lomwe lingasokoneze chilichonse ngati litatsika. Anakhulupiriranso kale kusalowerera ndale, momwe mumalipira ntchito popanda tsankho. Ukonde ukadapitilira kukhala wapadziko lonse lapansi komanso wokhala ndi ma code ochezeka kotero kuti usakhale m'manja mwa ochepa okha. Tikudziwa kuti pakuchita intaneti sibwino kwambiri, koma poyerekeza ndi zomwe zinalipo kale, chirichonse chakhala demokalase kwambiri ndipo chilengedwe chapereka mawu kwa anthu ambiri.

Mu phukusi, Tim adalenga mkonzi woyamba ndi osatsegula, WorldWideWeb pamodzi. Anasiya CERN mu 94 kuti apeze World Wide Web Foundation ndikuthandizira kukhazikitsa ndi kufalitsa mfundo zotseguka za intaneti. Lero akadali bwana. Ndipo kupambana kwake kwakukulu kotsiriza mu labotale kunali kufalitsa ma protocol a HTTP ndi intaneti ndi code yotulutsidwa yomwe imapereka malipiro a ufulu. Izi zinapangitsa kuti ukadaulo uwu ufalikire.

Chaka chapitacho Mose adapangidwa, msakatuli woyamba wokhala ndi chidziwitso chojambula, osati zolemba zokha. Inakhala Netscape Navigator ndipo zina zonse ndi mbiri. Zambiri zomwe timagwiritsa ntchito masiku ano zidayamba m'zaka khumi izi: injini zosakira, ma RSS feed, Flash yomwe imakondedwa ndi kudedwa, ndi zina zambiri. Kuti ndikupatseni lingaliro, IRC idapangidwa mu '88, ICQ idatuluka mu '96 ndipo Napster mu '99. Ambiri mwa matekinolojewa ali ndi mbiri zosiyana zomwe zikubwera.

Ndipo yang'anani momwe ife tasinthira. Kuchokera pamalumikizidwe a chingwe pakati pa mayunivesite, panali kusintha kwa maukonde otakata omwe amagwiritsa ntchito chilankhulo chimodzi cholumikizirana. Kenako panabwera malo apadziko lonse lapansi komanso okhazikika osinthana zinthu, ndi kulumikizana ndi foni ndi netiweki. Anthu ambiri adayamba kugwiritsa ntchito intaneti kumeneko, ndi phokoso lakale lomwe limayesa kuyesa mzerewu, likuwonetsa kuthamanga kwa intaneti ndikukhazikitsa chizindikiro chotumizira.

Kulumikizana uku kunakula mwachangu ndikukhala burodi bandi. Masiku ano sitingathe kulingalira za moyo wathu popanda kutumiza ma siginecha opanda zingwe, omwe ndi WiFi, komanso deta yam'manja popanda kufunikira kofikira, yomwe ndi 3G, 4G, ndi zina zambiri. Tikukumana ndi mavuto chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa magalimoto: muyezo wa IPV4 umakhala wodzaza ndi ma adilesi ndipo kusamukira ku IPV6 kumachedwa, koma kubwera.

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