anzeru TV

Kukayika pa zomwe zilembo zonsezi zikutanthawuza nkwachibadwa pogula wailesi yakanema yatsopano. Mitundu ya Smart TV ili ndi masinthidwe osiyanasiyana, okhala ndi zowonetsera za LED, LCD, OLED, QLED ndi MicroLED ndipo muyenera kusankha njira yabwino kwambiri.

Kuphatikiza pa mtengo, ndikofunikira kumvetsetsa momwe ukadaulo uliwonse wowonetsera umagwirira ntchito pa TV yanu.

Mwachidule, mvetsetsani kusiyana pakati pa zitsanzo zowonekera, ubwino wake ndi mavuto aakulu omwe mungakumane nawo ngati mutasankha kugula imodzi mwa izo.

Kusiyana pakati pa matekinoloje owonetsera

Pakali pano pali mapanelo ambiri a Smart TV, iliyonse ili ndi mawonekedwe ake komanso ukadaulo wake. Pano tikukuwonetsani chilichonse kuti mudziwe chomwe chili choyenera kwa inu.

LCD

Ukadaulo wa LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) umapatsa moyo zomwe zimatchedwa zowonetsera zamadzimadzi. Ali ndi galasi lopyapyala lokhala ndi makristasi oyendetsedwa ndi magetsi mkati, pakati pa mapepala awiri owonekera (omwe ndi zosefera polarizing).

Gulu lamadzimadzi lamadzimadzili limayatsidwanso ndi nyali ya CCFL (fluorescent). Kuwala koyera koyera kumawunikira maselo amitundu yoyambirira (yobiriwira, yofiira ndi yabuluu, RGB yotchuka) ndipo izi ndizomwe zimapanga zithunzi zamitundu zomwe mumaziwona.

Kuchuluka kwa mphamvu yamagetsi yomwe kristalo iliyonse imalandira imatanthawuza momwe imayendera, yomwe imalola kuwala kocheperako kudutsa mu fyuluta yopangidwa ndi ma pixel atatu.

Pochita izi, ma transistors amabwera pamtundu wafilimu, yemwe dzina lake ndi Thin Film Transistor (TFT). Ndicho chifukwa chake ndizofala kuwona zitsanzo za LCD / TFT. Komabe, mawuwa sakutanthauza mtundu wina wa LCD chophimba, koma wamba chigawo cha LCD zowonetsera.

Chophimba cha LCD chimakhala ndi mavuto awiri: 1) pali mitundu yambiri ya mitundu ndipo mawonekedwe a LCD nthawi zina sakhala okhulupirika; 2) wakuda siwowona kwenikweni, chifukwa galasi liyenera kutsekereza kuwala konse kuti apange 100% malo amdima, luso lokhalo silingathe kuchita molondola, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti "imvi zakuda" kapena zakuda zowala.

Pazithunzi za TFT LCD ndizothekanso kukhala ndi vuto ndi ngodya yowonera ngati simukuyang'ana chophimba 100%. Ili si vuto la LCD, koma ku TFT ndi ma TV a LCD okhala ndi IPS, monga LG's, tili ndi ngodya zowonera.

LED

LED (Light Emitting Diode) ndi diode yotulutsa kuwala. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, ma TV omwe ali ndi zowonetsera za LED sali kanthu koma ma TV omwe skrini ya LCD (yomwe ingakhale kapena isakhale IPS) ili ndi nyali yakumbuyo yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito ma diode otulutsa kuwala.

Ubwino wake waukulu ndikuti umagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa kuposa gulu lachikhalidwe la LCD. Choncho, kuwala kwa LED kumagwira ntchito mofanana ndi LCD, koma kuwala komwe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito kumakhala kosiyana, ndi ma diode otulutsa kuwala kwa kristalo wamadzimadzi. M'malo mwa chinsalu chonse cholandira kuwala, madontho amawalitsidwa mosiyana, zomwe zimawonjezera kutanthauzira, mitundu ndi zosiyana.

Chonde dziwani: 1) LCD TV imagwiritsa ntchito Cold Cathode Fluorescent Nyali (CCFL) kuti iwunikire pansi pa gulu lonse; 2) pomwe LED (mtundu wa LCD) imagwiritsa ntchito ma diode ang'onoang'ono, owoneka bwino otulutsa kuwala (LEDs) kuti aunikire gululi.

OLED

Ndizofala kumva kuti OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) ndikusintha kwa LED (Light Emitting Diode), chifukwa ndi diode organic, zinthu zikusintha.

Ma OLED, chifukwa cha ukadaulo uwu, sagwiritsa ntchito kuwala kwapambuyo pa ma pixel awo onse, omwe amawunikira payekhapayekha mphamvu yamagetsi ikadutsa pamtundu uliwonse. Ndiye kuti, mapanelo a OLED ali ndi kuwala kwawo, popanda kuwala kwambuyo.

Ubwino ndi mitundu yowoneka bwino, yowala komanso yosiyana. Monga pixel iliyonse ili ndi ufulu wodziyimira pawokha pakupanga kuwala, ikafika nthawi yotulutsa mtundu wakuda, ndikokwanira kuzimitsa kuyatsa, komwe kumatsimikizira "zakuda zakuda" komanso mphamvu zambiri. Mwa kugawa ndi gulu lonse lowunikira, zowonera za OLED nthawi zambiri zimakhala zowonda komanso zosinthika.

Mavuto ake awiri: 1) mtengo wapamwamba, kupatsidwa mtengo wapamwamba wopangira chophimba cha OLED poyerekeza ndi chikhalidwe cha LED kapena LCD; 2) TV imakhala ndi moyo wamfupi.

Mwachitsanzo, Samsung imadzudzula kugwiritsa ntchito zowonetsera za OLED pamawayilesi akanema ndipo imawona kuti ndizoyenera kwambiri ma foni a m'manja (omwe amasintha mwachangu) potengera zowonera za QLED. Omwe amagwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa OLED pama TV ndi LG, Sony ndi Panasonic.

QLED

Pomaliza, timafika ku QLED (kapena QD-LED, Quantum Dot Emitting Diodes) TV, kusintha kwina kwa LCD, monga LED. Izi ndi zomwe timatcha chophimba cha madontho a quantum: tinthu tating'onoting'ono ta semiconductor, zomwe miyeso yake sipitilira nanometer m'mimba mwake. Sichinthu chatsopano ngati MicroLED, mwachitsanzo. Ntchito yake yoyamba yamalonda inali pakati pa 2013.

Opikisana nawo wamkulu wa OLED, QLED, amafunikiranso gwero lowala. Ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timalandira mphamvu komanso kutulutsa ma frequency a kuwala kuti apange chithunzi pazenera, kutulutsanso mitundu yosiyanasiyana yamitundu yokhala ndi kuwala kocheperako.

Sony (Triluminos) anali m'modzi mwa omwe adayambitsa kupanga ma televizioni a quantum dot, LG (yomwe imateteza OLED) ilinso ndi zowonera ndiukadaulo uwu. Ku Brazil, komabe, ndizofala kwambiri kupeza ma TV osiyanasiyana a Samsung okhala ndi chophimba cha QLED.

LG ndi Samsung akulimbana ndi chidwi cha ogula. Woyamba waku South Korea, LG, amateteza: 1) matani akuda olondola kwambiri komanso kutsika kwamphamvu kwa OLED. Ena aku South Korea, Samsung, amateteza: 2) QLED imawonetsa mitundu yowoneka bwino komanso yowala komanso zowonera zomwe sizingagwirizane ndi "zowotcha" (zosowa kwambiri pawailesi yakanema).

Ngakhale matani akuda akuda, OLED imatha kusiyabe zizindikiro pa ogwiritsa ntchito zenera zolemera ndi zithunzi zosasunthika, monga osewera masewera a kanema pazaka zambiri. Kumbali ina, ma QLED amatha kukhala ndi "imvi zakuda."

Vutoli limapezeka makamaka pamakanema osavuta (wowerengeka otsika mtengo). Zowonetsa zokwera mtengo kwambiri (monga Q9FN) zimapereka umisiri wowonjezera monga dimming yakomweko, zomwe zimawongolera magwiridwe antchito paziwonetsero poyang'anira nyali yakumbuyo kuti iwonetse "zakuda" zakuda. Zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kusiyanitsa ndi OLED.

Yaying'ono

Lonjezo laposachedwa ndi MicroLED. Ukadaulo watsopano umalonjeza kubweretsa pamodzi zabwino kwambiri za LCD ndi OLED, kubweretsa pamodzi mamiliyoni a ma LED ang'onoang'ono omwe amatha kutulutsa kuwala kwawo. Poyerekeza ndi chophimba cha LCD, mphamvu zamagetsi ndi kusiyanitsa ndizabwinoko, kupitilira apo, zimatha kutulutsa kuwala kwambiri ndikukhala ndi moyo wautali kuposa OLED.

Pogwiritsa ntchito wosanjikiza wosanjikiza (mosiyana ndi ma LED achilengedwe, omwe amakhala ochepa) ndi ma LED ang'onoang'ono, ma microLED, poyerekeza ndi OLED, akhoza: 1) kukhala owala komanso okhalitsa; 2) kukhala kosavuta kuwotcha kapena kuzimiririka.

TFT LCD, IPS ndi TN zowonetsera: kusiyana

Nthawi zonse pamakhala chisokonezo pamene mutuwo uli chophimba, AMOLED kapena LCD. Ndipo, kuyang'ana kwambiri pa zenera la LCD, pali matekinoloje angapo ophatikizika, monga TFT, IPS kapena TN. Kodi mawu afupipafupi awa amatanthauza chiyani? Ndipo muzochita, pali kusiyana kotani? Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza, m'njira yosavuta, cholinga cha matekinoloje amenewa.

Chisokonezo chonsechi chimachitika, ndikukhulupirira, chifukwa cha malonda ndi mbiri yakale. Muzofotokozera zaukadaulo, opanga nthawi zambiri (si lamulo) amawunikira mawu achinsinsi a IPS pazida zomwe zili ndi mapanelo awa.

Monga zitsanzo: LG, yomwe imabetcherana kwambiri paukadaulo (mosiyana ndi Samsung, yolunjika pa AMOLED), imayikanso masitampu owunikira gulu la IPS pamafoni am'manja. Komanso, oyang'anira otsogola kwambiri, monga Dell UltraSharp ndi Apple Thunderbolt Display, ndi IPS.

Kumbali inayi, mafoni otsika mtengo kwambiri akhala (ndipo akadali) akuyambitsidwa ndi zotchedwa TFT zowonetsera. Sony idatengera zowonera zomwe zimalengezedwa ngati "TFT" m'mafoni ake apamwamba kwambiri mpaka Xperia Z1, yomwe inali ndi mawonekedwe osawoneka bwino omwe amawonera pang'ono poyerekeza ndi omwe amapikisana nawo.

Mwachidziwitso, pamene Xperia Z2 inafika, idalengezedwa ngati "IPS" ndipo panalibe kutsutsidwa kwakukulu kwa zowonetsera pa mafoni apamwamba a Sony. Choncho bwera nane.

TFT LCD screen ndi chiyani?

Poyamba, tanthauzo la mtanthauzira mawu: TFT LCD imayimira Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display. Mu Chingerezi, ndimatha kumasulira mawu odabwitsawa ngati "thin film transistor based liquid crystal display". Izi sizikunena zambiri, ndiye tiyeni tifotokozere bwino.

LCD yomwe mumadziwa bwino, ngakhale simukudziwa momwe imagwirira ntchito. Uwu ndiye ukadaulo womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi kompyuta yanu kapena laputopu. Chipangizocho chili ndi zomwe zimatchedwa "makristasi amadzimadzi", zomwe ndi zinthu zowonekera zomwe zimatha kukhala opaque zikalandira magetsi.

Makristalowa ali mkati mwa chinsalu, chomwe chili ndi "ma pixels", opangidwa ndi mitundu yofiira, yobiriwira ndi yabuluu (muyezo wa RGB). Mtundu uliwonse umathandizira ma toni 256. Kuchita maakaunti (2563), zomwe zikutanthauza kuti pixel iliyonse imatha kupanga mitundu yopitilira 16,7 miliyoni.

Koma kodi mitundu ya zinthu zamadzimadzi zimenezi imapangidwa bwanji? Chabwino, amayenera kulandira magetsi kuti akhale opaque, ndipo ma transistors amasamalira izi: aliyense ali ndi udindo wa pixel.

Kumbuyo kwa chophimba cha LCD ndi chotchedwa backlight, kuwala koyera komwe kumapangitsa kuti chinsalu chikhale chowala. M'mawu osavuta, taganizirani nane: ngati ma transistors onse amajambula pakali pano, makhiristo amadzimadzi amakhala opaque ndikulepheretsa kuwala (mwanjira ina, chinsalucho chidzakhala chakuda). Ngati palibe chotuluka, chophimba chidzakhala choyera.

Apa ndipamene TFT imayamba kusewera. Muzowonetsera za TFT LCD, mamiliyoni a ma transistors, omwe amawongolera ma pixel a gulu lililonse, amayikidwa mkati mwa chinsalu ndikuyika filimu yopyapyala kwambiri yazinthu zazing'ono zazing'ono za nanometer kapena ma micrometer okhuthala (tsitsi lili pakati pa 60 ndi 120 ma micrometer. ). Chabwino, tikudziwa kale kuti "filimu" yomwe ilipo mu TFT yachidule.

TN imalowa kuti?

Chakumapeto kwa zaka zana zapitazi, pafupifupi mapanelo onse a TFT LCD adagwiritsa ntchito njira yotchedwa Twisted Nematic (TN) kuti igwire ntchito. Dzina lake ndi chifukwa chakuti, pofuna kulola kuwala kudutsa pixel (ndiko kuti, kupanga mtundu woyera), kristalo wamadzimadzi amakonzedwa mwadongosolo lopotoka. Zithunzizi zikukumbutsa mafanizo a DNA omwe mudawona kusukulu yasekondale:

Pamene transistor imatulutsa magetsi, mapangidwewo "amagwa." Makhiristo amadzimadzi amakhala opaque ndipo chifukwa chake ma pixel amasanduka akuda, kapena amawonetsa mtundu wapakatikati pakati pa zoyera ndi zakuda, kutengera mphamvu yomwe transistor imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Yang'ananinso chithunzichi ndikuwona momwe makhiristo amadzimadzi amapangidwira: perpendicular to the substrate.

Koma aliyense amadziwa kuti LCD yochokera ku TN ili ndi malire. Mitunduyo sinapangidwenso ndi kukhulupirika komweko ndipo panali mavuto ndi ngodya yowonera: ngati simunayime ndendende kutsogolo kwa chowunikira, mutha kuwona kusiyanasiyana kwamitundu. Kutalikira kwa ngodya ya 90 ° yomwe mudayimilira kutsogolo kwa chowunikira, mitunduyi idawoneka yoyipa kwambiri.

Kodi pali kusiyana kotani ndi mapanelo a IPS?

Kenako lingaliro lidabwera kwa iwo: bwanji ngati kristalo wamadzimadzi sunayenera kukonzedwa mozungulira? Ndipamene adapanga In-Plane Switching (IPS). Mu gulu la IPS-based LCD, mamolekyu amadzimadzi amadzimadzi amapangidwa mozungulira, ndiko kuti, kufanana ndi gawo lapansi. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, iwo nthawizonse amakhala pa ndege yomweyo ("In-Plane", mumvetse?). Chojambula cha Sharp chikuwonetsa izi:

Popeza kristalo wamadzimadzi nthawi zonse amakhala pafupi kwambiri mu IPS, mawonekedwe owonera amatha kusintha ndipo kutulutsa kwamtundu kumakhala kokhulupirika. Chotsalira ndi chakuti teknolojiyi idakali yokwera mtengo kwambiri kuti ipange, ndipo si onse opanga omwe ali okonzeka kugwiritsa ntchito zambiri pa gulu la IPS popanga foni yamakono yamakono, kumene chofunika kwambiri ndi kusunga ndalama zochepa.

Mfundo yofunika

Mwachidule, IPS ndi izi: njira yosiyana yokonzekera mamolekyu amadzimadzi. Zomwe sizisintha ponena za TN ndi transistors, zomwe zimayendetsa ma pixel: zimakonzedwanso mofanana, ndiko kuti, zimayikidwa ngati "filimu yowonda". Palibe zomveka kunena kuti skrini ya IPS ndiyabwino kuposa TFT: zitha kukhala ngati kunena kuti "Ubuntu ndioyipa kuposa Linux".

Chifukwa chake, zowonera za IPS zomwe mukudziwa zimagwiritsanso ntchito ukadaulo wa TFT. M'malo mwake, TFT ndi njira yotakata kwambiri, yomwe imagwiritsidwanso ntchito mu mapanelo a AMOLED. Kungodziwa kuti gulu ndi TFT sikuwonetsa mtundu wake.

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