Mafoni

Kalekale panali mainjiniya ena omwe adaganiza zosintha mbiri. Poganizira njira yopangira kulumikizana bwino komanso kosavuta, anali ndi lingaliro labwino kwambiri lopanga dongosolo lotha kulumikizana pakati pa mafoni opanda zingwe.

Lingaliro silinali loipa, koma luso lamakono panthawiyo silinathandize kwambiri. Zonse zinayamba m'chaka cha 1947, koma malingalirowo sanapite patsogolo kwambiri kuposa chiphunzitso ndi machitidwe ochepa.

Mbiri yeniyeni ya foni yam'manja, yomwe imadziwikanso kuti foni yam'manja, inayamba mu 1973, pamene kuyimba koyamba kunapangidwa kuchokera pa foni yam'manja kupita ku foni yapansi.

Zinali kuyambira mu April 1973 pamene ziphunzitso zonse zinasonyeza kuti foni ya m’manja inkagwira ntchito bwino kwambiri ndiponso kuti matelefoni a m’manja amene ananenedwa mu 1947 anapangidwa molondola. Iyi sinali nthawi yodziwika bwino, koma inali chochitika chodziwika kwanthawizonse ndipo chomwe chidasinthiratu mbiri ya dziko lapansi.

mbiri ya foni yam'manja

Popeza idapangidwa mu 1973 ndi Martin Cooper, foni yam'manja yasintha mwachangu. M'zaka zoyambirira, zidazo zinali zolemera komanso zazikulu, kuphatikizapo ndalama zambiri. Masiku ano, pafupifupi aliyense akhoza kukhala ndi chipangizo chotsika mtengo chomwe chimalemera 0,5 pounds ndipo ndi chaching'ono kuposa dzanja lanu.

1980s: zaka zoyambirira

Opanga angapo adayesedwa pakati pa 1947 ndi 1973, koma kampani yoyamba kuwonetsa chipangizo chogwira ntchito inali Motorola. Dzina la chipangizocho linali DynaTAC ndipo sichinagulitsidwe kwa anthu (chinali chongoyerekeza). Chitsanzo choyamba chotulutsidwa malonda ku United States (maiko ena anali atalandira kale mafoni kuchokera kuzinthu zina) anali Motorola DynaTAC 8000x, ndiko kuti, zaka khumi chiyeso choyamba.

Wantchito wakale wa Motorola a Martin Cooper adayambitsa foni yoyamba padziko lonse lapansi, Motorola DynaTAC, pa Epulo 3, 1974 (pafupifupi chaka itapangidwa).

Atayima pafupi ndi New York Hilton Hotel, adakhazikitsa siteshoni yodutsa msewu. Chochitikacho chinagwira ntchito, koma zidatenga zaka khumi kuti foni yam'manja iwonekere poyera.

Mu 1984, Motorola idatulutsa Motorola DynaTAC kwa anthu. Inali ndi nambala yoyambira, chiwonetsero chamzere umodzi, ndi batire ya lousy yokhala ndi ola limodzi lokha la nthawi yolankhula ndi maola 8 a nthawi yoyimilira. Komabe, zinali zosintha panthawiyo, chifukwa chake olemera okha ndi omwe angakwanitse kugula imodzi kapena kulipira mautumiki a mawu, omwe amawononga ndalama zambiri.

DynaTAC 8000X inayeza masentimita 33 muutali, 4,5 centimita m’lifupi, ndi 8,9 centimita mu makulidwe. Imalemera magalamu 794 ndipo imatha kuloweza manambala mpaka 30. Chophimba cha LED ndi batire yayikulu idasunga mapangidwe ake "abokosi". Idagwira ntchito pa netiweki ya analogi, ndiye kuti, NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), ndipo kupanga kwake sikunasokonezedwe mpaka 1994.

1989: kudzoza kwa mafoni osintha

Zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi DynaTAC itatuluka, Motorola idapita patsogolo, ndikuyambitsa zomwe zidakhala kudzoza kwa foni yoyamba. Chotchedwa MicroTAC, chipangizo cha analogichi chinayambitsa pulojekiti yosintha: chipangizo chojambula mawu chopindika pa kiyibodi. Kuphatikiza apo, inkayezera ma centimita opitilira 23 ikavumbulutsidwa ndikulemera ma kilos osakwana 0,5, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti ikhale foni yopepuka kwambiri yomwe idapangidwapo mpaka nthawi imeneyo.
1990s: chisinthiko chenicheni

Munali m'zaka za m'ma 90 kuti mtundu wamakono amakono amakono omwe mumawona tsiku ndi tsiku anayamba kupanga. Kutumizirana mameseji koyamba, ma processor a digito, ndi hi-tech (iDEN, CDMA, GSM network) zidatulukira panthawi yamavutoyi.

1993: foni yamakono yoyamba

Ngakhale mafoni am'manja akhalapo kuyambira m'ma 1970, kupangidwa kwa foni yamakono kunasangalatsa ogula aku America m'njira yatsopano.

Kupatula apo, zaka makumi atatu pakati pa foni yam'manja yoyamba ndi foni yam'manja yoyamba idawona kubwera kwa intaneti yamakono. Ndipo kupangidwa kumeneku kunayambitsa chiyambi cha njira yolumikizirana ndi digito yomwe tikuwona masiku ano.

Mu 1993, IBM ndi BellSouth adagwirizana kuti akhazikitse IBM Simon Personal Communicator, foni yoyamba yophatikizapo PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). Sizinangotha ​​kutumiza ndi kulandira mafoni amawu, komanso zidakhala ngati buku la ma adilesi, chowerengera, mapeja, ndi makina a fax. Kuphatikiza apo, idapereka chowonekera koyamba, kulola makasitomala kugwiritsa ntchito zala zawo kapena cholembera kuyimba mafoni ndikupanga zolemba.

Zinthuzi zinali zosiyana komanso zapamwamba kwambiri kuti ziwoneke kuti ndizoyenera kutchedwa "Foni Yoyamba Padziko Lonse".

1996: foni yoyamba

Patatha theka la zaka kutulutsidwa kwa MicroTAC, Motorola idatulutsa zosintha zodziwika kuti StarTAC. Mouziridwa ndi omwe adatsogolera, StarTAC idakhala foni yoyamba yowona. Idagwira ntchito pa maukonde a GSM ku United States ndipo idaphatikizansopo thandizo la mauthenga a SMS, adawonjezera mawonekedwe a digito monga buku lolumikizana, ndipo anali woyamba kuthandizira batire ya lithiamu. Kuphatikiza apo, chipangizocho chimangolemera magalamu 100 okha.

1998: foni yoyamba ya candybar

Nokia inayamba kuonekera mu 1998 ndi foni yopangira candybar, Nokia 6160. Polemera magalamu 160, chipangizochi chinali ndi chiwonetsero cha monochrome, mlongoti wakunja, ndi batire yochangidwanso yokhala ndi nthawi yolankhula ya maola 3,3. Chifukwa cha mtengo wake komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mosavuta, Nokia 6160 idakhala chida chogulitsidwa kwambiri cha Nokia m'zaka za m'ma 90.

1999: Kalambulabwalo wa foni yamakono ya BlackBerry

Chipangizo choyamba cha BlackBerry chinawonekera kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 90 ngati pager ya njira ziwiri. Inali ndi kiyibodi yathunthu ya QWERTY ndipo imatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutumiza ndi kulandira mameseji, maimelo, ndi masamba.

Kuphatikiza apo, idapereka chiwonetsero chamizere 8, kalendala, ndi wokonza. Chifukwa chosowa chidwi ndi mafoni a m'manja panthawiyo, chipangizochi chinkagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu okhawo omwe ankagwira ntchito m'makampani.

2000s: zaka za foni yamakono

Zakachikwi zatsopano zidabweretsa mawonekedwe a makamera ophatikizika, ma network a 3G, GPRS, EDGE, LTE, ndi ena, komanso kufalikira komaliza kwa maukonde amtundu wa analogi mokomera maukonde a digito.

Kuti muwongolere nthawi ndikupereka zida zambiri zatsiku ndi tsiku, foni yamakono yakhala yofunika kwambiri, chifukwa yapangitsa kuti zitheke kuyang'ana pa intaneti, kuwerenga ndikusintha mafayilo amawu, maspredishithi komanso kupeza maimelo mwachangu.

Sizinali mpaka chaka cha 2000 pomwe foni yamakono idalumikizidwa ndi netiweki yeniyeni ya 3G. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, mulingo wolumikizirana ndi mafoni adapangidwa kuti alole zida zamagetsi zonyamulika kuti zizitha kugwiritsa ntchito intaneti popanda zingwe.

Izi zidakweza chidwi cha ma foni a m'manja tsopano kupanga zinthu ngati msonkhano wamakanema ndi kutumiza maimelo akuluakulu otheka.

2000: foni yoyamba ya bluetooth

Foni ya Ericsson T36 idayambitsa ukadaulo wa Bluetooth kudziko lamafoni, kulola ogula kulumikiza mafoni awo opanda zingwe kumakompyuta awo. Foniyo idaperekanso kulumikizidwa kwapadziko lonse lapansi kudzera pa GSM 900/1800/1900 band, ukadaulo wozindikira mawu ndi Aircalendar, chida chomwe chimalola ogula kulandira zosintha zenizeni za kalendala kapena bukhu la adilesi.

2002: foni yoyamba ya BlackBerry

Mu 2002, Research In Motion (RIM) idayamba. BlackBerry PDA inali yoyamba kuwonetsa kulumikizana kwa ma cellular. Ikugwira ntchito pa netiweki ya GSM, BlackBerry 5810 idalola ogwiritsa ntchito kutumiza maimelo, kulinganiza deta yawo ndikukonzekera zolemba. Tsoka ilo, idasowa cholankhulira ndi maikolofoni, kutanthauza kuti ogwiritsa ntchito adakakamizika kuvala mutu wokhala ndi maikolofoni yolumikizidwa.

2002: foni yoyamba yokhala ndi kamera

Sanyo SCP-5300 inathetsa kufunika kogula kamera, chifukwa inali chipangizo choyamba cha foni chophatikizapo kamera yomangidwa ndi batani lodzipatulira lojambula. Tsoka ilo, idangokhala 640x480 resolution, 4x digito zoom, ndi 3-foot range. Ngakhale zili choncho, ogwiritsa ntchito mafoni amatha kujambula zithunzi popita ndikuzitumiza ku PC yawo pogwiritsa ntchito pulogalamu yamapulogalamu.

2004: foni yoyamba yowonda kwambiri

Motorola RAZR V3 isanatulutsidwe mu 2004, mafoni ankakonda kukhala akulu komanso ochulukirapo. Razr adasintha izi ndi makulidwe ake ang'onoang'ono a 14 millimeters. Foniyo inalinso ndi mlongoti wamkati, kiyibodi yokhala ndi mankhwala, komanso maziko abuluu. Kwenikweni, foni yoyamba idapangidwa osati kungopereka magwiridwe antchito, komanso kutulutsa mawonekedwe ndi kukongola.

2007: Apple iPhone

Apple italowa mumakampani amafoni am'manja mu 2007, zonse zidasintha. Apple idalowa m'malo mwa kiyibodi wamba ndi kiyibodi yamitundu ingapo yomwe imalola makasitomala kudzimva akuwongolera zida zamafoni ndi zala zawo: kudina maulalo, kutambasula / kutsika zithunzi, ndikutsegula ma Albums.

Kuphatikiza apo, idabweretsa nsanja yoyamba yodzaza ndi zinthu zama foni am'manja. Zinali ngati kutenga opareshoni kuchokera pakompyuta ndikuyiyika pa foni yaying'ono.

IPhone sichinali chipangizo chowoneka bwino kwambiri chomwe chidafika pamsika, koma chidalinso chida choyamba choperekera intaneti yonse, yopanda malire. IPhone yoyamba idapatsa ogwiritsa ntchito mwayi wofufuza pa intaneti monga momwe amachitira pakompyuta.

Inadzitamandira moyo wa batri wa maola 8 a nthawi yolankhula (kuposa mafoni a m'manja kuyambira 1992 ndi ola limodzi la moyo wa batri) komanso maola 250 a nthawi yoyimilira.

Mawonekedwe a foni yam'manja ya Smart

sms

Chida chofunikira kwambiri kwa anthu ambiri ndi ntchito yotumizirana mameseji (SMS). Ndi ochepa omwe akudziwa, koma meseji yoyamba idatumizidwa mu 1993 kudzera mwa wogwiritsa ntchito waku Finland. Zinatenga nthawi yaitali kuti teknoloji yonseyi ifike ku Latin America, pambuyo pake, ogwira ntchitowo anali akuganizabe kukhazikitsa mafoni apansi kwa makasitomala.

Mameseji sanali ofunikira kwambiri panthawiyo, chifukwa anali ochepa chabe ndipo sankalola kugwiritsa ntchito mawu omveka bwino kapena zilembo zapadera. Kuonjezera apo, kunali kovuta kugwiritsa ntchito ntchito ya SMS, chifukwa kunali koyenera kuti, kuwonjezera pa foni yam'manja, foni yam'manja ya wolandirayo ikhale yogwirizana ndi teknoloji.

Mafoni am'manja otha kutumiza mameseji nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi kiyibodi ya zilembo za alphanumeric, koma chipangizocho chimayenera kukhala ndi zilembo osati manambala.

nyimbo zamafoni

Mafoni am'manja adabweretsa mabelu okhumudwitsa pang'ono, pomwe pakupita patsogolo kwaukadaulo kwa ogwiritsa ntchito ndi zida, nyimbo zamtundu wa monophonic ndi polyphonic zidayamba kuwonekera, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti anthu amawononge ndalama zambiri kuti angokonda nyimbo zawo.

zojambula zamitundu

Mosakayikira, zonse zinali zabwino kwambiri kwa ogula, koma chinachake chinali chikusowa kuti foni yam'manja imalize: inali mitundu. Zipangizo zokhala ndi zowonera za monochrome sizinangowonetsa zonse zomwe maso athu angamvetse.

Kenako opanga adayambitsa zowonetsera ndi mamba a imvi, gwero lomwe limalola kusiyanitsa zithunzi. Ngakhale izi, palibe amene adakhutitsidwa, chifukwa zonse zidawoneka ngati zenizeni.

Pamene mafoni zikwi zinayi oyambirira amtundu wamtundu adawonekera, anthu ankaganiza kuti dziko likutha, chifukwa chinali teknoloji yodabwitsa ya chipangizo chaching'ono chotere.

Sizinatenge nthawi kuti zida zidapeza zowonera zamitundu 64.000, kenako zowonetsa zokhala ndi mitundu yofikira 256 zidawonekera. Zithunzizo zinkawoneka kale zenizeni ndipo panalibe njira yodziwira kusowa kwa mitundu. Mwachiwonekere, chisinthiko sichinayime ndipo lero mafoni a m'manja ali ndi mitundu ya 16 miliyoni, gwero lomwe ndilofunika kwambiri pazida zapamwamba.

Mauthenga amitundumitundu ndi intaneti

Ndi mwayi wowonetsa zithunzi zokongola, mafoni am'manja posakhalitsa adapeza mauthenga odziwika bwino a MMS. Mauthenga amtundu wa multimedia, poyamba, angakhale othandiza kutumiza zithunzi kwa ojambula ena, komabe, ndi kusintha kwa utumiki, MMS yakhala ntchito yomwe imathandizira kutumiza mavidiyo. Zili ngati kutumiza imelo.

Zomwe aliyense ankafuna zidapezeka pama foni am'manja: intaneti. Zowona, intaneti yopezeka kudzera pa foni yam'manja sinali yofanana ndi intaneti yomwe anthu amagwiritsa ntchito pamakompyuta, koma izi ziyenera kusinthika posachedwa. Ma portal amafunikira kuti apange masamba am'manja (omwe amatchedwa masamba a WAP), okhala ndi zochepera komanso zambiri.

Masiku ano mafoni

Pali kusiyana kwakukulu mu hardware kuyambira 2007 mpaka lero. Mwachidule, zonse ndi zapamwamba kwambiri.

- Pali zambiri zokumbukira
- Zipangizo ndizothamanga kwambiri komanso zamphamvu kwambiri
- Mutha kugwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu angapo nthawi imodzi
- Makamera ndi HD
- Kutsitsa nyimbo ndi makanema ndikosavuta, monganso kusewera pa intaneti
- Batire limakhala kwa masiku m'malo mwa mphindi kapena maola angapo

Machitidwe awiri akuluakulu ogwiritsira ntchito asintha pamsika wa smartphone. Google Android wakhala anatengera zosiyanasiyana hardware opanga kupikisana ndi Apple iOS.

Pakalipano, Android ikupambana, popeza ili ndi gawo lalikulu kwambiri la msika wapadziko lonse, ndi oposa 42%.

Chifukwa cha kupita patsogolo kumeneku, anthu ambiri atha kusintha makamera awo a digito ndi ma iPods (mp3 player) ndi mafoni awo. Ngakhale ma iPhones ndi ofunika kwambiri chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake, zida za Android zafala kwambiri chifukwa ndizotsika mtengo.

Tsogolo la mafoni am'manja

Mafoni am'manja oyambilira ngati Simon wa IBM adatipatsa chithunzithunzi chazomwe zida zam'manja zingakhale. Mu 2007, kuthekera kwake kudasinthidwa kwathunthu ndi Apple ndi iPhone yake. Tsopano, iwo akupitiriza kukhala chinthu chofunika kwambiri pa moyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku.

Kuchokera m'malo mwa makamera athu a digito ndi osewera nyimbo, kupita kwa othandizira ngati Siri ndi kusaka ndi mawu, tasiya kugwiritsa ntchito mafoni athu kuti tizilankhulana.

Chisinthikocho sichingaime, kotero opanga samasiya kuyambitsa zida zambiri, zokhala ndi zida zapamwamba komanso ntchito zosangalatsa kwambiri.

Kupititsa patsogolo kwa mafoni a m'manja kukukulirakulirabe. Ndizovuta kulosera zomwe zidzachitike pambuyo pake, koma zikuwoneka ngati kukankhiranso mafoni okhala ndi ma touchscreens opindika ndizotheka. Malamulo a mawu akuyembekezeredwanso kuti apitirize kukula.

Apita masiku omwe tidayenera kusiya maluso ambiri omwe timasangalala nawo pama laputopu athu kapena ma desktops tikuyenda. Kuwongolera kwaukadaulo wam'manja kwatipatsa mwayi wosankha zambiri momwe timayendera ntchito yathu komanso zosangalatsa.

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