Makamera

Kugula kamera ya digito kungakhale kosangalatsa kwambiri komanso kupsinjika pang'ono, pambuyo pake, zosankha sizitha. Kudziwa mitundu yomwe ilipo kudzakuthandizani mukafuna zosankha.

Tiyeni tiwone makamera 8 otchuka a makamera a digito.

Kodi kujambula ndikofunika bwanji?

Kujambula ndi chinthu chomwe chilipo pakati pa anthu, koma kodi mukudziwa kufunika kwenikweni kwa luso limeneli? Kuposa kujambula kamphindi, kujambula ndi chinthu chapadera ndipo kumaphatikizapo zinthu zingapo ...

Canon

Ichi ndi chizindikiro chomwe ambiri amakonda. Canon ndi kampani yodziwika padziko lonse lapansi yaku Japan. Masiku ano, ali ndi makamera a point-and-shoot komanso DSLRs.

Canon imapanga magalasi angapo, kuphatikiza mndandanda wa 3L, womwe umadziwika kuti ndiwopambana kwambiri pojambula ndikukankhira mnzake Sony pampikisano.

Nikon

Akatswiri ambiri ojambula zithunzi amagwiritsa ntchito Nikon, yomwe imapanga makamera apamwamba kwambiri omwe ndi osavuta kugwiritsa ntchito.

Mtunduwu sukufuna kupanga makamera achinyamata kapena msika wotayika. Ndizinthu zamtundu wabwino kwambiri komanso zokhazikika bwino.

Sony

Sony inali imodzi mwa makampani oyambirira kulowa mumsika wa kamera ya digito ndipo lero idakali patsogolo pa mpikisano mu gawoli.

Ali ndi mzere wa DSLR; komabe, imayang'ana kwambiri pa msika wa mfundo ndi kuwombera. Ambiri amaona kuti ndi nzeru kuchita bizinesi kukopa achinyamata kuti azigula zinthu zawo m'tsogolo.

Pentax

Zikafika pamtengo, mtundu ndi chidziwitso, palibe kampani yomwe imapikisana ndi Pentax. Canon ndi Nikon zidzawononga ndalama zambiri kuposa kamera ya Pentax yomweyo, kotero ndizoyenera kuziyerekeza.

Chizindikiro ichi chimadziwika pomanga kamera yodalirika. Zinadziwikanso chifukwa chosagwiritsa ntchito njira zachinyengo zamalonda.

Ndiwogwirizana ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya magalasi, kukupatsani mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito yomwe muli nayo kale. Ndipo kamera yake yopanda madzi ya Optio point-and-shoot iyenera kutchulidwa.

Olympus

Ogula ambiri amakonda zomwe amawona pa Olympus, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimanyalanyazidwa chifukwa siziwoneka bwino.

Mtunduwu umapereka mawonekedwe opangidwa bwino okhala ndi zinthu zambiri komanso pamtengo wokwanira, zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala njira yabwino kwa aliyense amene akufuna njira yotsika mtengo.

Samsung

Samsung imapereka kamera ya digito yotsika mtengo yomwe ili yabwino komanso yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito.

Monga Olympus, ili ndi luso labwino kwambiri la ndalama zochepa. Lilinso yabwino ndi yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito chithunzi kutengerapo dongosolo.

Panasonic

Zodalirika komanso zosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito, makamera amatenga zithunzi zabwino kwambiri ndipo mawonekedwe a 3D ndioyenera kutchulidwa.

Ambiri amavomereza kuti mtundu uwu ndi wabwino mtengo wandalama. Onetsetsani kuti muyang'ane posankha kuti ndi iti yomwe ili yabwino kwambiri kwa inu.

Casio

Ichi ndi mtundu wa kamera womwe nthawi zambiri sudziwika. Osapusitsidwa ndi kukula kochepa, chifukwa kumagwira ntchito yabwino.

Kuyang'ana izi 8 zopangidwa ndi njira yabwino yoyambira kusaka kwanu kwa kamera ya digito.

Kodi mumadziwa makamera apamwamba kwambiri a digito?

Makamera a digito ndi zinthu zotchuka zomwe ogula amagula. Chifukwa chosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito, sikofunikira kukhala ndi luso lofunikira kuti mutenge zithunzi zabwino.

Kafukufuku wopangidwa kuti awone malingaliro a ogula akuwonetsa makamera a digito omwe amafunidwa kwambiri. Yang'anani zosankha zonse, kukumbukira kuti pakhoza kukhala makamera ochokera pamzere womwewo wokhala ndi mitundu yabwinoko, popeza kafukufukuyu adachitika mu 2020.

Makamera a DSLR:

1.Nikon D3200
2. Canon EOS Wopanduka T5
3.Nikon D750
4.Nikon D3300
5. Canon EOS Wopanduka SL1
6.Canon EOS Wopanduka T5i
7.Canon EOS 7D MkII
8.Nikon D5500
9. Canon EOS 5D Mark III
10.Nikon D7200
11.Canon EOS 6D
12.Nikon D7000
13.Nikon D5300
14.Nikon D7100
15.Sony SLT-A58K
16.Nikon D3100
17.Canon EOS Wopanduka T3i
18.Sony A77II
19.Canon EOS Rebel T6s
20.Pentax K-3II

Makamera akuloza ndi kuwombera:

1. Canon PowerShot Elph 110 HS
2.Canon PowerShot S100
3. Canon PowerShot ELPH 300 HS
4.Sony Cybershot DSC-WX150
5. Canon Powershot SX260 HS
6.Panasonic Lumix ZS20
7. Canon Powershot Pro S3 NDI Series
8.Canon PowerShot SX50
9. Panaonic DMC-ZS15
10.Nikon Coolpix L810
11.Canon PowerShot G15
12.SonyDSC-RX100
13.Fujifilm FinePix S4200
14. Canon PowerShot ELPH 310 HS
15.Canon Powershot A1300
16.Fujifilm X100
17. Nikon Coolpix AW100 Madzi
18. Panasonic Lumix TS20 Madzi

mbiri ya makamera

Kamera yoyamba idawonekera mu 1839, yopangidwa ndi Mfalansa Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, komabe, idadziwika mu 1888 ndi kutuluka kwa mtundu wa Kodak. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, kujambula kwakhala luso loyamikiridwa ndi anthu ambiri. Malinga ndi etymology ya mawuwa, kujambula kumatanthauza kulemba ndi kuwala kapena kujambula ndi kuwala.

Masiku ano, chifukwa cha kutchuka kwa kujambula kwa digito, kuwala sikofunikira pa kujambula chithunzicho monga momwe zinalili kale pamene filimu yojambula zithunzi imagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ngakhale kuwala kuli kofunikira kuti pakhale chithunzicho, kokha kupyolera mu masensa a digito. Komabe, ngakhale ukadaulo wonse womwe ukugwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano komanso wokhala ndi malingaliro apamwamba komanso olondola akadali makamera, makamera a analogi akadali akukwera.

Koma, m'mitundu yolimba kwambiri komanso yamunthu, yokhala ndi analogi ndi digito, zomwe zimakopa chidwi cha akatswiri ojambula komanso okonda padziko lonse lapansi. Kuwonjezera apo, zonsezi zinayamba ndi kulengedwa kwa kamera obscura, kumene zithunzi zinajambulidwa, koma sanatsutse kuwala ndi nthawi.

Kenako, m’chaka cha 1816, Mfalansa Joseph Nicéphore Niépce anayamba kujambula zithunzi pogwiritsa ntchito kamera yobisika. Koma kuyambira pomwe adatulukira sipanakhalepo chisinthiko chochuluka m'mbiri ya kujambula kwa analogi. M'malo mwake, adakhala zaka zoposa 100 akugwiritsa ntchito mfundo zomwezo komanso mawonekedwe opangidwa ndi Niépce.

Potsirizira pake, pamene zaka zinkapita, makamerawo anacheperachepera ndipo anakhala okhoza kunyamula ndi osavuta kuwagwira. Ndi izi, kujambula kungagwiritsidwe ntchito pamlingo waukulu ndi atolankhani padziko lonse lapansi, chifukwa chake, zofuna za akatswiri a photojournalism zinawonjezeka kwambiri. Masiku ano, anthu ambiri ali ndi kujambula ngati chinthu chosangalatsa, kotero amakonda njira yakale yojambulira zithunzi kuzithunzi zamakono zamakono.

Zithunzi kamera

Kamera imatengedwa ngati chida chowonera. Cholinga chake ndi kujambula ndi kujambula chithunzi chenicheni pa filimu yomwe imakhudzidwa ndi kuwala komwe kumagwera. Mwachidule, kamera yokhazikika kwenikweni ndi kamera obscura yokhala ndi dzenje. M'malo mwa dzenjelo, ndi mandala otembenuka omwe amagwira ntchito potembenuza kuwala komwe kumadutsa mpaka kumalo amodzi. Choncho m’kati mwa kamera muli filimu yosamva kuwala, choncho kuwala kukalowa mu lens, chithunzi chimajambulidwa pafilimuyo.

Komanso, dzina loperekedwa ku lens lomwe limayikidwa m'malo mwa dzenje ndilo lens lofuna. Ndipo lens iyi imayikidwa mu njira yomwe imapangitsa kuyandikira kapena kutali ndi filimuyo, ndikusiya chinthucho chakuthwa pafilimuyo. Chifukwa chake, njira yosunthira mandala pafupi kapena kutali imatchedwa kuyang'ana.

Mtundu wakale

Kuti mujambule chithunzi, makina angapo amatsegulidwa mkati mwa kamera. Ndiko kuti, powombera makinawo, diaphragm yomwe ili mkati mwake imatseguka kwa kachigawo kakang'ono ka sekondi imodzi. Ndi ichi, amalola khomo la kuwala ndi tilinazo filimu. Komabe, ndikofunikira kudziwa momwe mungayang'anire pa chinthucho kuti chithunzicho chikhale chakuthwa kwambiri, apo ayi zotsatira zake zidzakhala chithunzi popanda kuganizira. Kuti mudziwe momwe mungayang'anire bwino, kumbukirani kuti ngati chinthucho chili kutali ndi lens ya cholinga, chiyenera kukhala pafupi kwambiri ndi filimuyo ndi mosemphanitsa.

Momwe kamera obscura imagwirira ntchito

Kamera obscura ndi bokosi lomwe lili ndi kabowo kakang'ono komwe kuwala kwa dzuwa kumadutsa. Ndipo imagwira ntchito pochepetsa kulowa kwa kuwala kuti chithunzicho chipangidwe. Mwachitsanzo, tengani bokosi lotseguka, kuwala kudzalowa ndikuwonetsa malo osiyanasiyana mkati mwa bokosilo. Chifukwa chake, palibe chithunzi chomwe chidzawoneke, kungoti mdima wopanda mawonekedwe. Koma ngati mutaphimba bokosilo kwathunthu ndikungopanga kabowo kakang'ono mbali imodzi, kuwala kumangodutsa mu dzenjelo.

Kuonjezera apo, kuwala kowala kudzawonetsedwa pansi pa bokosilo, koma mwa njira yowonongeka, kupanga chithunzi chomveka bwino cha zomwe ziri patsogolo pa dzenje. Ndipo ndi momwe lens ya kamera imagwirira ntchito.

Kamera yakuda

Komabe, mfundo ya kamera obscura ndi yakale kwambiri, yomwe imatchulidwa ndi afilosofi ena monga Aristotle ndi Plato, omwe adagwiritsa ntchito mfundoyi polenga Nthano ya Phanga. M'zaka za m'ma XNUMX ndi khumi ndi zisanu, ojambula a nthawiyo monga Leonardo da Vinci adagwiritsa ntchito kamera ya obscura kupenta, pogwiritsa ntchito chithunzi chomwe chinawonetsedwa kumbuyo kwa kamera.

Choncho, kabowo kakang'ono kamene kamapangidwa mu kamera obscura, chithunzicho chidzakhala chakuthwa kwambiri, chifukwa ngati dzenjelo ndi lalikulu, kuwala kudzalowa kwambiri. Izi zidzapangitsa kuti tanthauzo la chithunzicho liwonongeke. Koma ngati dzenjelo linali laling’ono kwambiri, chithunzicho chikhoza kukhala chakuda. Poganizira izi, mu 1550, wofufuza wina wa ku Milan dzina lake Girolamo Cardano anasankha kuika lens kutsogolo kwa dzenje, zomwe zinathetsa vutoli. Kumayambiriro kwa 1568, Daniele Bárbaro adapanga njira yosinthira kukula kwa dzenjelo, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti pakhale diaphragm yoyamba. Pomaliza, mu 1573, Inácio Danti anawonjezera galasi lozungulira kuti atembenuzire chithunzicho, kuti chisakhale chozondoka.

momwe kamera imagwirira ntchito

Kamera ya analogi imagwira ntchito kudzera munjira zamakina ndi zamakina, zomwe zimaphatikizapo zigawo zomwe zimayang'anira kuzindikira, kuyika kuwala, ndi kujambula zithunzi. Kwenikweni, ndi momwe diso la munthu limagwirira ntchito. Chifukwa mukatsegula maso anu, kuwala kumadutsa mu cornea, iris ndi ana. Kenako nsongazo zimakambidwa pa retina, yomwe imagwira ntchito yojambula ndikusintha zomwe zili m'malo a maso kukhala chithunzi.

Monga momwe kamera imawonekera, chithunzi chomwe chimapangidwa pa retina chimapindika, koma ubongo umasamala kusiya chithunzicho pamalo oyenera. Ndipo izi zimachitika munthawi yeniyeni, monga pa kamera.

mkati mwa chipindacho

Kamera yojambula idachokera ku mfundo ya kamera obscura. Chifukwa, popeza chithunzicho sichinalembedwe, chinangowonetsera pansi pa bokosi, kotero panalibe zithunzi. Poganizira njira yojambulira chithunzichi, kamera yoyamba yojambula zithunzi ikuwonekera.

Pamene katswiri wa ku France, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, anaphimba mbale ya malata ndi phula loyera kuchokera ku Yudeya, kenaka anaika mbale imeneyi mkati mwa kamera obscura ndi kutseka. Kenako analoza zenera n’kulola kuti chithunzicho chijambulidwe kwa maola asanu ndi atatu. Ndipo kotero woyamba zithunzi filimu anabadwa. Kenako, mu 1839, Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre anayambitsa chinthu choyamba chopangidwa kuti azijambula, chotchedwa daguerreotype, chomwe chinayamba kugulitsidwa padziko lonse lapansi.

Chamber: Calotype

Komabe, anali William Henry Fox-Talbot amene adapanga njira yolakwika ndi yabwino mu kujambula, yotchedwa calotyping. Ndizo zomwe zinalola kupanga zithunzizo pamlingo waukulu, ndipo ma positikhadi oyambirira adawonekera. Pambuyo pake, kupita patsogoloko kudapitilira, ndi makamera monga tikuwadziwira lero, okhala ndi magalasi otsogola, mafilimu, komanso kujambula kwa digito.

zigawo za kamera

M'malo mwake, kamera yokhazikika ndi kamera yobisika, koma yangwiro. Ndiko kuti, ili ndi njira yoyendetsera kulowetsedwa kwa kuwala (chotseka), gawo la kuwala (lens ya cholinga) ndi zinthu zomwe chithunzicho chidzabwerezedwanso kapena kulembedwa (filimu yojambula kapena sensa ya digito). Kuphatikiza apo, kamera yojambulira ili ndi zina mwa zigawo zake zazikulu za thupi, komwe kuli chotsekera, kung'anima, diaphragm ndi njira zina zonse zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zigwire ntchito, monga:

1. Cholinga

Amaonedwa kuti ndi moyo wa kamera yojambula zithunzi, chifukwa ndi momwe kuwala kumadutsa mumtundu wa magalasi, kumene amawongolera mwadongosolo ku filimu yojambula zithunzi, kupanga chithunzicho.

2 - Wotseka

Ndizomwe zimatsimikizira kuti filimuyo kapena sensa ya digito idzawonekera kwa nthawi yayitali bwanji, imatsegula pamene batani la shutter likukanizidwa, kulola kuwala kulowa mu kamera. Kuphatikiza apo, ndi liwiro la shutter lomwe lingatsimikizire kukula kwa chithunzicho, chomwe chimatha kusiyana ndi 30 s mpaka 1/4000 s. Ndiye ikasiyidwa yotseguka kwa nthawi yayitali, zotsatira zake zimakhala zosawoneka bwino.

3- Sewero

Ndi kudzera pa chowonera kuti mutha kuwona zochitika kapena chinthu chomwe mukufuna kujambula. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, ndi dzenje lomwe lili pakati pa magalasi oyikidwa bwino ndi magalasi omwe amalola wojambula zithunzi kuti awone bwino zomwe ajambula.

4 - Diaphragm

Ndiwo udindo wa kuchuluka kwa kuwala komwe kumalowa mu kamera, kusonyeza mphamvu yomwe filimu kapena sensa ya digito idzalandira kuwala. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, diaphragm ndiyo imatsimikizira ngati chipangizocho chidzalandira kuwala kwambiri kapena kochepa kwambiri. Ndipotu kachitidwe ka diaphragm n’kofanana ndi kamwana ka diso la munthu, kamene kali ndi udindo wolamulira kuwala kumene maso amakoka.

Komabe, kabowoko kamakhala kotseguka nthawi zonse, choncho zili kwa wojambula zithunzi kuti adziwe pomwe pali pobowo. Choncho kabowo ndi shutter ziyenera kusinthidwa pamodzi kuti mupeze chithunzi chomwe mukufuna. Komanso, kabowo kamayesedwa ndi mtengo wotsimikiziridwa ndi chilembo "f", kotero kutsika kwa mtengo wa f, m'pamenenso kutseguka kwambiri.

5 - Photometer

Njira yomwe imayang'anira kuwunikira koyenera musanadina chotseka. Ndiko kuti, mita imatanthauzira kuwala kozungulira molingana ndi makonda omwe wojambulayo amatsimikiza. Ndiponso, kuyeza kwake kumawonekera pa kalamu kakang'ono pa kamera, kotero pamene muvi uli pakati, zikutanthauza kuti kuwonetseredwa ndi kolondola kwa chithunzicho. Komabe, ngati muvi uli kumanzere, chithunzicho chidzakhala chakuda, kumanja, zikutanthauza kuti pali kuwala kochuluka komwe kungapangitse kuwala kwambiri.

6- Zithunzi filimu

Mosiyana ndi kamera ya analogi, filimu yojambula zithunzi imagwiritsidwa ntchito kusindikiza zithunzi. Chifukwa chake, kukula kwake ndi 35mm, kukula kofanana kwa sensor ya digito yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pamakamera a digito. Kuonjezera apo, filimuyi imapangidwa ndi pulasitiki, yosinthika komanso yowoneka bwino, yophimbidwa ndi nsalu yopyapyala ya makristasi asiliva, okhudzidwa kwambiri ndi kuwala.

Mwachidule, shutter ikatulutsidwa, kuwala kumalowa mu kamera ndikulowa mufilimuyo. Kenako, ikaperekedwa ndi mankhwala (emulsion), mfundo za kuwala zomwe zimatengedwa ndi makristasi asiliva zimatenthedwa ndipo chithunzi chojambulidwa chikuwonekera.

Mulingo wa sensitivity wa filimu umayesedwa ndi ISO. Ndipo pakati pa zomwe zilipo ndi ISO 32, 40, 64, 100, 125, 160, 200, 400, 800, 3200. Muyeso wa sensitivity wapakati ndi ISO 400. Kukumbukira kuti chiwerengero cha ISO chikatsika, filimuyo imakhala yovuta kwambiri.

Masiku ano, ngakhale ndi teknoloji yonse yomwe ilipo, yokhala ndi makamera apamwamba kwambiri komanso olondola, makamera a analogi amayamikiridwa ndi ambiri okonda kujambula. Izi ndi chifukwa cha khalidwe la zithunzi zojambulidwa, zomwe sizikusowa kusintha ngati digito.

Malinga ndi ojambula, kugwiritsa ntchito filimu kumayamikiridwa chifukwa mawonekedwe ake osinthika ndi apamwamba kuposa digito. Ndipo zithunzi zojambulidwa sizingachotsedwe momwe zimachitikira ndi zithunzi za digito, kupanga zithunzi zapadera komanso zosasindikizidwa. Komabe, makampani ena monga Fuji ndi Kodak sagulitsanso filimu yojambula.

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