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Internet

Kugamuchirwa kunhoroondo yemabviro eInternet.

Kare makombiyuta asati agadzirwa, masayendisiti nevanyori vaifungidzira nzira yokukurumidza yokukurukurirana pakati pevanhu vari kure. Teregirafu yakatanga rwendo urwu, uye yekutanga transatlantic tambo yeiyi svikiro yakaiswa muna 1858.

Rudzi rwekutanga rwerunhare rwekuyambuka Atlantic, kubva kuScotland kuenda kumhenderekedzo yeCanada, rwakavhurwa muna 1956. Chido chacho chakanga chichiri kusundwa nekubudirira kwekombiyuta panguva iyoyo. Vazhinji vakanga vachiri kutora kamuri rose uye vanga vasina kutaridzika kwekuona, asi vanga vatove vachishanda nenzvimbo dzekusvika kure muchivako chimwe chete. Yakanga ine zvakawanda zvekushanduka.

Ndiani akagadzira Indaneti?

Tiri mumakore ekuma50 muUnited States. Inguva yeCold War, kunetsana kwemafungiro nesainzi pakati peboka rinomiririrwa nemaAmerican neiro rinotungamirwa neSoviet Union. Kufambira mberi mukurwisana nemuvengi kwaiva kukunda kukuru, kufanana nenhangemutange yomuchadenga. Nechikonzero ichi, Mutungamiri Eisenhower vakagadzira Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) muna 1958. Makore gare gare, akawana D, yeDziviriro, uye akava DARPA. Sangano iri rakabatana nevadzidzisi nevemaindasitiri kugadzira matekinoroji muzvikamu zvakasiyana, kwete zvechiuto chete.

Mumwe wemapiyona echikamu chekombuta yeARPA aive JCR Licklider, anobva kuMassachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, uye akahaya mushure mekutaura nezve galactic network yemakomputa umo chero data yaigona kuwanikwa. Akadyara mhodzi yezvose izvi musangano.

Kumwe kufambira mberi kukuru kwaive kusikwa kwepacket switching system, nzira yekuchinjana data pakati pemichina. Mayuniti eruzivo, kana mapaketi, anotumirwa rimwe nerimwe kuburikidza netiweki. Iyo sisitimu yaive nekukurumidza kupfuura maseketi-yakavakirwa chiteshi uye yakatsigira kwakasiyana kwaienda, kwete kungonongedza kunongedza. Chidzidzo ichi chakaitwa nemapoka akafanana, akadai saPaul Baran weRAND Institute, Donald Davies naRoger Scantlebury veUK National Physical Laboratory, naLawrence Roberts weARPA.

Kune zvakare kudzidza uye kushandiswa kwemanodhi, iyo mharadzano mapoinzi eruzivo. Iwo mabhiriji pakati pemichina inotaurirana nemumwe uye inoshanda senzvimbo yekudzora, kuitira kuti ruzivo rusarasikirwe panguva yerwendo uye kutapurirana kwese kunofanirwa kutangwazve. Kubatana kwese kwakagadzirwa pazasi petambo, uye mabhesi emauto nemasangano ekutsvagisa ndiwo aive ekutanga nekuti akange atova nechimiro ichi.

ARPANET inozvarwa

Muna Kukadzi 1966, hurukuro yakatanga yeArPA network, kana ARPANET. Nhanho yaitevera yaive yekugadzira maIMPs, meseji kugadzirisa nzvimbo. Ndiwo matinji epakati, ayo aizobatanidza mapoinzi etiweki. Unogona kuvadaidza kuti sekuru nasekuru ve routers. Asi zvese zvaive zvitsva zvekuti yekutanga kubatana kune network haina kusimbiswa kusvika Gumiguru 29, 1969. Zvakaitika pakati peUCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, uye Stanford Research Institute, anenge makiromita 650 kure.

Meseji yekutanga kuchinjaniswa yaizova meseji yekupinda uye yakafamba zvakanaka. Mavara maviri ekutanga akaonekwa kune rimwe divi, asi system yacho yakazoenda kunze kwenyika. Ndizvozvo: iri ndiro zuva rekutanga kubatana uyezve kupesana kwekutanga. Uye izwi rekutanga rakafambiswa raive… "iyo".

Yekutanga ARPANET network yemanodhi yakanga yagadzirira pakupera kwegore iroro uye yakanga yatove ichishanda zvakanaka, ichibatanidza mapoinzi maviri ataurwa pamusoro apa, University of California kuSanta Barbara uye University of Utah School of Informatics, zvishoma kure, muMunyu. Lake City. ARPANET ndiyo yakatangira yatinoti Indaneti.

Uye kunyangwe chiratidzo chekutanga chaive chemauto, fungidziro yekuvandudza tekinoroji iyi yaive dzidzo. Pane ngano yekuti ARPANET yaive nzira yekuchengetedza data kana kurwisa kwenyukireya, asi chishuwo chikuru chaive chekuti masayendisiti ataure nekupfupisa madaro.

Wedzera uye shanduka

Muna 71, patova nemapoinzi gumi nemashanu munetiweki, chikamu chayo chinogoneka nekuda kwekuvandudzwa kwePNC. Network Control Protocol yaive yekutanga server protocol yeARPANET uye yakatsanangura nzira yese yekubatanidza pakati pemapoinzi maviri. Ndizvo zvakabvumira kuwirirana kwakaoma, zvakadai sekugovera mafaira uye kushandiswa kure kwemichina iri kure.

Muna Gumiguru 72, kuratidzwa kweruzhinji kweARPANET kwakaitwa naRobert Kahn pachiitiko chekombuta. Gore iro email rakagadzirwa, nzira iri nyore yekutsinhana mameseji atakatokurukura muchiteshi. Panguva iyoyo, pakanga patove ne29 points dzakabatana.

Ndiro gore ratinoona yekutanga transatlantic link, pakati peARPANET neNorwegian NORSAR system, kuburikidza nesatellite. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, kubatana kweLondon kwakauya. Saka iyo pfungwa yekuti nyika yaida yakavhurika architecture network. Zvinoita pfungwa dzese munyika, nekuti dai zvisina kudaro taizongova nemakirabhu akati wandei akabatana, asi kwete kune mumwe nemumwe uye imwe neimwe ine akasiyana ekuvaka uye mapuroteni. Ringava basa rakawanda kuzvisunga pamwe chete.

Asi pakanga paine dambudziko: iyo NCP protocol yakanga isina kukwana kune iyi yakavhurika yekuchinjana yemapakiti pakati pemanetiweki akasiyana. Ndipo apo Vint Cerf naRobert Kahn vakatanga kushanda pakutsiva.

Imwe purojekiti yeparutivi iEthernet, yakagadziridzwa paXerox Parc ine mukurumbira muna 73. Parizvino ndiyo imwe yematanho ekubatanidza data, uye yakatanga seti yetsananguro dzetambo dzemagetsi uye masaini ekubatanidza munharaunda. Injiniya Bob Metcalfe akasiya Xerox pakupera kwemakore gumi kugadzira mubatanidzwa uye kugonesa makambani kushandisa chiyero. Eya, abudirira.

Muna 1975, ARPANET inonzi inoshanda uye yatova nemichina makumi mashanu nenomwe. Iriwo mugore iroro apo US Defense agency inotora kutonga kweprojekiti. Ziva kuti network iyi haisati yave nekufunga kwekutengesa, mauto chete nesainzi. Hurukuro dzomunhu oga hadzikurudzirwi, asi hadzirambidzwiwo.

Iyo TCP/IP shanduko

Ipapo TCP/IP, kana Transmission Control Protocol bar Internet Protocol, yakazvarwa. Yakanga iri uye ichiri chiyero chekutaurirana chemidziyo, seti yezvikamu zvinomisikidza kubatana uku pasina kuvakazve ese ma network akaumbwa kusvika ipapo.

IP ndiyo chaiyo kero layer yevanotumira mapaketi uye vanogamuchira. Ndinoziva kuti zvese izvi zvakanyanya kuoma, asi nyaya yedu pano yakasiyana.

Musi waNdira 1, 1983, ARPANET inoshandura zviri pamutemo protocol kubva kuNCP kuenda kuTCP/IP mune imwe nhanho yeInternet. Uye avo vane mutoro Robert Kahn naVint Cerf vakaisa mazita avo munhoroondo yetekinoroji zvachose. Gore rinotevera, network inotsemuka nepakati. Chikamu chekutaurirana nekutsinhana kwemafaira echiuto, iyo MILNET, uye chikamu chehurumende nesainzi icho chichiri kunzi ARPANET, asi isina dzimwe nzvimbo dzepakutanga. Zvaiva pachena kuti aisazorarama ari ega.

zviise pamwe chete

Pakazosvika 1985, Indaneti yakanga yatove yakasimbiswa setekinoroji yekukurukurirana pakati pevatsvakurudzi nevagadziri, asi zita racho harina kuzoshandiswa kusvika pakupera kwemakore gumi, apo mitambo yakatanga kuumba chimiro chimwe chete. Zvishoma nezvishoma, yaizobuda mumayunivhesiti uye yakatanga kugamuchirwa nenyika yebhizinesi uye, pakupedzisira, neruzhinji rwevanhu.

Saka tinoona kuputika kwediki network yanga yatova nenharaunda diki yakatarisana nechimwe chinhu. Iyi ndiyo nyaya yeCSNet, iyo yakaunza pamwe mapoka emakomputa ekutsvagisa sainzi uye yaive imwe yekutanga nzira dzesainzi. Kana kuti Usenet, yaive nhanho yenhaurirano maforamu kana mapoka enhau uye yakagadzirwa muna 1979.

Uye Bitnet, yakagadzirwa muna 81 ye email uye faira kutamiswa, uye iyo yakabatanidza anopfuura 2500 emayunivhesiti pasi rose. Imwe ine mukurumbira ndeye NSFNET, kubva kune imwecheteyo sainzi yekuAmerica hwaro hwaitungamira CSNet, kufambisa ruzivo rwevaongorori kumakomputa makuru uye dhatabhesi. Aive mumwe wevatsigiri vakuru veiyo chiyero chakatsanangurwa neARPANET uye akabatsira kuparadzira kuiswa kwemaseva. Izvi zvinoguma nekuumbwa kweNSFNET backbone, yaive 56 kbps.

Uye, hongu, tiri kutaura zvakawanda nezveUnited States, asi nyika dzinoverengeka dzakachengeta maratidziro emukati akafanana uye akawedzera kuTCP/IP ndokuzofamba kuenda kuWWW standard nekufamba kwenguva. Kune MINITEL yeFrance, semuenzaniso, yaive pamhepo kusvika 2012.

I80s inoshanda kuwedzera iyo ichiri diki Internet uye kusimbisa zvivakwa zvekubatana pakati pemanodhi, kunyanya kuvandudzwa kwemagedhi uye emangwana marouters. Muhafu yekutanga yemakore gumi, komputa yega yakazvarwa iine IBM PC uye Macintosh. Uye mamwe maprotocol akatanga kugamuchirwa kumabasa akasiyana.

Vanhu vazhinji vakashandisa File Transfer Protocol, yakanaka yekare FTP, kuita rudimentary vhezheni yekurodha. DNS tekinoroji, inova nzira yekushandura domain kuita IP kero, yakaonekwawo muma80 uye yakagamuchirwa zvishoma nezvishoma.

Pakati pe87 ne91, Indaneti inosunungurwa kushandiswa kwekutengeserana muUnited States, ichitsiva ARPANET neNSFNET backbones, nevanopa vega uye nzvimbo itsva dzekuwana kune network kunze kwemayunivhesiti uye mauto ehondo. Asi kune vashoma vanofarira uye vashoma vanoona zvingaitika. Pane changa chisipo kuita kuti kufamba kuve nyore uye kuve nemukurumbira.

Chimurenga cheWWW

Chinhu chinotevera parwendo rwedu CERN, Europe's nuclear research laboratory. Muna 1989, Timothy Berners-Lee, kana Tim, aida kuvandudza kuchinjana kwemagwaro pakati pevashandisi pamwe chete neinjiniya Robert Cailliau. Fungidzira hurongwa hwekuwana ruzivo nezve kubatana pakati pemakomputa ese akabatana uye kuchinjanisa mafaera zviri nyore.

Mushonga wacho waiva wokushandisa hunyanzvi hwaivepo asi husina basa hunonzi hypertext. Ndizvozvo, iwo mazwi anobatika akabatana kana mifananidzo inokuendesa kune imwe nzvimbo painternet paunoda. Mukuru waTim akanga asinganyanyi kunyanyoda nezvepfungwa yacho uye akaona isina kujeka, saka basa racho raifanira kukura.

Ko kana mashoko acho akanaka? Muna 1990, pakanga paine "chete" kufambira mberi kutatu uku: maURL, kana kero dzakasiyana kuratidza kwakabva mapeji ewebhu. HTTP, kana hypertext transfer protocol, inova ndiyo nzira yekutanga yekutaurirana, uye HTML, inova iyo fomati yakasarudzwa pakurongeka kwemukati. Saka kwakazvarwa World Wide Web, kana WWW, zita rakagadzirwa naye uye iro isu takashandura seWorld Wide Web.

Tim akafungidzira nzvimbo yakasarudzika, saka hapana mvumo yaizodiwa kutumira, ndoda nzvimbo yepakati inogona kukanganisa zvese kana yadzika. Iye zvakare aitotenda mukusarerekera kwemumbure, umo iwe unobhadhara sevhisi pasina kusarura kwemhando. Dandemutande raizoramba riri repasi rose uye nemakodhi ehushamwari kuitira kuti risangova mumaoko evashoma chete. Isu tinoziva kuti mukuita iyo Internet haina kunaka, asi kana ichienzaniswa nezvaive kare, zvese zvave zvakanyanya democratized uye zvakatipoteredza zvakapa izwi kuvanhu vazhinji.

Mupakeji, Tim akagadzira yekutanga mupepeti uye browser, iyo WorldWideWeb pamwe chete. Akasiya CERN muna 94 kuti awane World Wide Web Foundation uye kubatsira kuvandudza uye kuparadzira yakavhurika Internet zviyero. Nanhasi achiri shefu. Uye kubudirira kwake kwekupedzisira murabhoritari kwaive kuparadzira maprotocol eHTTP uye webhu nekodhi yakaburitswa inoburitsa nekubhadharwa kwekodzero. Izvi zvakafambisa kupararira kweruzivo urwu.

Gore rakapfuura Mosaic yakagadzirwa, yekutanga browser ine ruzivo rwakajeka, kwete zvinyorwa chete. Yakava Netscape Navigator uye yasara inhoroondo. Zvizhinji zvezvinhu zvatinoshandisa nhasi zvakatanga mumakore gumi ano: injini dzekutsvaga, RSS feeds, Flash inodiwa uye inovengwa, nezvimwe. Kuti ndikupe pfungwa, IRC yakagadzirwa muna '88, ICQ yakabuda muna'96 uye Napster muna'99. Matekinoroji akawanda aya ane nhoroondo dzakasiyana dzichauya.

Uye tarisai kuti takashanduka sei. Kubva pakubatanidza tambo pakati pemayunivhesiti, pakanga paine shanduko kuenda kune yakakura network yaishandisa mutauro mumwechete wekutaurirana. Ipapo kwakauya nzvimbo yepasirese uye yakamisikidzwa yekutsinhanisa zvirimo, ine nhare yekubatanidza kune network. Vanhu vazhinji vakatanga kushandisa Indaneti ipapo, neruzha rwuya rwekare rwakashandiswa kuyedza mutsara, kuratidza kumhanya kunobvira kweInternet uye pakupedzisira kumisa chiratidzo chekufambisa.

Kubatana uku kwakakurumidza uye kwakava Broadband. Nhasi hatigone kufungidzira hupenyu hwedu pasina kufambiswa kwemasaini masaini, inova WiFi, uye zvakare yenharembozha pasina kudiwa kwenzvimbo yekuwana, inova 3G, 4G, nezvimwe. Isu tiri kutoita matambudziko nekuda kwekuwanda kwetraffic: iyo IPV4 chiyero chakazara nemakero uye kutamira kuIPV6 kunononoka, asi ichauya.

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