Makamera

Canon

Uyu ndiwo mucherechedzo unodiwa nevakawanda. Canon ikambani ine mukurumbira pasi rose yekuJapan. Nhasi, vane poindi-uye-kupfura makamera pamwe neDSLRs.

Canon inogadzira lenzi akati wandei, kusanganisira iyo 3L yakatevedzana, inoonekwa seyakanakisa mukutora mifananidzo uye kusundira mukwikwidzi Sony mumakwikwi.

Nikon

Vazhinji vane hunyanzvi hwekutora mifananidzo vanoshandisa Nikon, iyo inogadzira mutsara wepamusoro wemakamera ari nyore kushandisa.

Iyi mhando haifarire kugadzira makamera evachiri kuyaruka kana musika unoraswa. Izvo zvigadzirwa zvemhando yepamusoro uye nekugara kwakanaka.

Sony

Sony yaive imwe yemakambani ekutanga kupinda mumusika wedhijitari kamera uye nhasi inoramba iri pamberi pemakwikwi muchikamu.

Ane mutsara weDSLR; zvisinei, inonyanya kukoshesa pamusika-uye-pfuti. Vazhinji vanozviona sehungwaru bhizinesi sarudzo yekukochekera vechidiki pane zvigadzirwa zvavo kuitira kuti vave vatengi venguva yemberi.

Pentax

Kana zvasvika pamutengo, mhando uye ruzivo, hapana kambani inokwikwidza nePentax. Canon naNikon zvinodhura zvakanyanya kupfuura imwechete Pentax kamera, saka zvakakodzera kuti uzvienzanise.

Iyi mhando inozivikanwa nekuvaka kamera yakavimbika. Yakanga ichizivikanwawo nekusashandisa hunyengeri hwekutengesa hunyengeri.

Inofambirana nemhando dzakawanda dzakasiyana dzelens, ichikupa iwe mukana wekushandisa iyo yaunotova nayo. Uye iyo isina mvura Optio poindi-uye-pfuti kamera inofanirwa kutaurwa.

Olympus

Vatengi vazhinji vanofarira zvavanoona paOlympus, iyo inowanzoregeredzwa nekuti haina kuoneka kwakawanda.

Ichi chinyorwa chinopa chitarisiko chakagadzirwa zvakanaka chine akawanda maficha uye nemutengo unonzwisisika, zvichiita kuti ive sarudzo yakanaka kune chero munhu ari kutsvaga inodhura sarudzo.

Samsung

Samsung inopa inotengeka dhijitari kamera inoyevedza uye iri nyore kushandisa.

Kufanana neOlympus, ine yakanakisa tekinoroji maficha emari shoma shoma. Iyo ine zvakare yakanakira uye iri nyore kushandisa mafoto ekufambisa system.

Panasonic

Yakavimbika uye iri nyore kushandisa, makamera anotora mafoto makuru uye iyo 3D modhi inofanirwa kutaurwa.

Vazhinji vanobvuma kuti mhando iyi yakanaka kukosha kwemari. Iva nechokwadi chekuzviongorora paunenge uchifunga kuti ndeipi yakanyanya kukutengera iwe.

Casio

Iyi imhando yekamera inowanzoenda isingaonekwe. Usanyengerwa nehukuru hudiki, nekuti hunoita basa rakanaka.

Kutarisa aya mabhureki masere inzira huru yekutanga kutsvaga kwako kwekamera yedhijitari.

Unoziva akanakisa digitaalinen makamera?

Digital kamera zvinhu zvakakurumbira zvinotengwa nevatengi. Kutenda kune nyore kwekushandisa, hazvidikanwi kuva neunyanzvi hunodiwa kutora mifananidzo yakanaka.

Ongororo dzakaitwa kuongorora maonero evatengi dzinoratidza kuti ndedzipi dzinonyanya kutsvakwa nekamera yedhijitari. Tarisa sarudzo dzese, uchirangarira kuti panogona kunge paine makamera kubva kumutsetse mumwechete ane shanduro dziri nani, sezvo tsvakiridzo yakaitwa muna 2020.

DSLR makamera:

1.Nikon D3200
2. Canon EOS Mupanduki T5
3.Nikon D750
4.Nikon D3300
5. Canon EOS Mupanduki SL1
6.Canon EOS Mupanduki T5i
7.Canon EOS 7D MkII
8.Nikon D5500
9. Canon EOS 5D Mark III
10.Nikon D7200
11.Canon EOS 6D
12.Nikon D7000
13.Nikon D5300
14.Nikon D7100
15.Sony SLT-A58K
16.Nikon D3100
17.Canon EOS Mupanduki T3i
18.Sony A77II
19.Canon EOS Rebel T6s
20.Pentax K-3II

Kunongedzera-uye-kupfura kamera:

1. Canon PowerShot Elph 110 HS
2.Canon PowerShot S100
3. Canon PowerShot ELPH 300 HS
4.Sony Cybershot DSC-WX150
5. Canon Powershot SX260 HS
6.Panasonic Lumix ZS20
7. Canon Powershot Pro S3 IS Series
8.Canon PowerShot SX50
9. Panaonic DMC-ZS15
10.Nikon Coolpix L810
11.Canon PowerShot G15
12.SonyDSC-RX100
13.Fujifilm FinePix S4200
14. Canon PowerShot ELPH 310 HS
15.Canon Powershot A1300
16.Fujifilm X100
17. Nikon Coolpix AW100 Mvura
18. Panasonic Lumix TS20 Mvura

nhoroondo yemakamera

Kamera yekutanga yakaonekwa muna 1839, yakagadzirwa nemuFrench Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, zvisinei, yakave yakakurumbira muna 1888 nekubuda kwechiratidzo cheKodak. Kubva ipapo, kutora mifananidzo kwave kuve unyanzvi hunoyemurwa nevanhu vazhinji. Zvinoenderana neiyo etymology yezwi, kutora mifananidzo zvinoreva kunyora nechiedza kana kudhirowa nechiedza.

Nhasi, nekuda kwekuzivikanwa kwemafoto edhijitari, mwenje hauna kukosha pakutora mufananidzo sezvawaimboita paishandiswa firimu remifananidzo. Kunyangwe mwenje uchiri kukosha kugadzira chifananidzo, chete kuburikidza nedhijitari sensors. Nekudaro, kunyangwe nehunyanzvi hwese hunoshandiswa nhasi uye kugadziriswa kwepamusoro uye kurongeka kuchiri makamera, analogi makamera achiri kukwira.

Asi, mune dzakashinga uye dzakanyanya kurongeka shanduro, ine analog nedhijitari mabasa, inokwezva kutarisisa kwenyanzvi dzekutora mifananidzo uye vanofarira kutenderera pasirese. Uyezve, zvose zvakatanga nekugadzirwa kwekamera obscura, apo mifananidzo yakatorwa, asi havana kuramba kuratidzwa kwechiedza uye nguva.

Ipapo, mugore ra1816, murume wokuFrance Joseph Nicéphore Niépce akatanga kurekodha mifananidzo kupfurikidza nekamera obscura. Asi kubva pakuwanikwa kwayo hakuna kumbove nekushanduka kwakawanda munhoroondo yemifananidzo yeanalogi. Muchokwadi, vakapedza anopfuura 100 makore vachishandisa iwo akafanana optical misimboti uye mafomati akagadzirwa naNiépce.

Pakupedzisira, nokufamba kwemakore, makamera akadzikira uye akava anotakurika uye ari nyore kubata. Neizvi, kutora mifananidzo kwaigona kushandiswa pamwero mukuru nevezvenhau vepasirese, nekudaro, zvinodikanwa zvevashandi vemifananidzo zvakawedzera zvakanyanya. Mazuvano, vanhu vazhinji vane kutora mifananidzo sechido chekutandara, saka vanosarudza nzira yekare yekutora mifananidzo kumifananidzo yedhijitari yanhasi.

Photographic kamera

Iyo kamera inoonekwa sechiridzwa chekufungidzira. Chinangwa chayo ndechekutora uye kunyora mufananidzo chaiwo pane firimu inonzwa kune chiedza chinowira pairi. Muchidimbu, kamera ichiri kungoita kamera obscura ine gomba mairi. Panzvimbo pegomba, zvisinei, ilenzi inochinjika inoshanda nekuchinjisa maranzi emwenje achipfuura napo kusvika panzvimbo imwechete. Saka mukati mekamera mune firimu rinonzwa chiedza, saka kana chiedza chapinda mulenzi, mufananidzo unorekodhwa pafirimu.

Zvakare, zita rakapihwa kune lenzi rinoiswa panzvimbo yegomba ndiro chinangwa lens. Uye iyi lenzi inoiswa mune imwe nzira inoita kuti iende pedyo kana kure kure nefirimu, ichisiya chinhu chakapinza pafirimu. Naizvozvo, maitiro ekufambisa lenzi padhuze kana kure kure anonzi kutarisisa.

Shanduro yekare

Kuti utore mufananidzo, nhevedzano yemaitiro anoiswa mukati mekamera. Kureva kuti, pakupfura muchina, diaphragm iri mukati mawo inovhura kwechidimbu chesekondi. Neizvi, inobvumira kupinda kwechiedza uye kunzwisiswa kwefirimu. Zvisinei, zvakakosha kuziva nzira yekuisa pfungwa pachinhu kuitira kuti chifananidzo chacho chive chakapinza, kana zvisina kudaro chigumisiro chichava mufananidzo usina kutarisa. Kuti uzive nzira yekuisa pfungwa zvakanaka, yeuka kuti kana chinhu chiri kure nechinangwa chelens, chinofanira kunge chiri padyo sezvinobvira kune firimu uye zvinopesana.

Iyo kamera obscura inoshanda sei

Iyo kamera obscura ibhokisi rine kaburi kadiki panopfuura nechiedza chezuva. Uye inoshanda nekudzikamisa kupinda kwechiedza kuitira kuti mufananidzo uumbwe. Semuenzaniso, tora bhokisi rakavhurika, mwenje uchapinda uye uratidze munzvimbo dzakasiyana mukati mebhokisi. Nekuda kweizvozvo, hapana mufananidzo unozoonekwa, kungoita shapeless blur. Asi kana iwe ukavhara bhokisi zvachose uye uchingoita gomba duku kune rumwe rutivi, chiedza chinongopfuura nepakati pegomba.

Mukuwedzera, chiedza chechiedza chichave chinoratidzwa pasi pebhokisi, asi nenzira yakatsauka, ichigadzira mufananidzo wakajeka wezviri pamberi pegomba. Uye ndizvo chaizvo mashandiro anoita lens kamera.

Kamera yakasviba

Zvisinei, nheyo yekamera obscura ndeyekare zvikuru, ichitaurwa nevamwe vazivi vakadai saAristotle naPlato, avo vakashandisa musimboti pakuumba Nhema yeBako. Muzana remakore rechigumi nemana neregumi neshanu, vanyori venguva vakadai saLeonardo da Vinci vakashandisa kamera obscura kupenda, vachishandisa mufananidzo wakaratidzwa kumashure kwekamera.

Naizvozvo, iyo diki gomba rakagadzirwa muobscura yekamera, iyo inopinza mufananidzo wacho, sezvo kana gomba rakakura, chiedza chichapinda zvakanyanya. Izvi zvichaita kuti tsananguro yemufananidzo irasikike. Asi kana gomba raive diki zvakanyanya, mufananidzo wacho unogona kunge wakasviba. Kufunga nezvazvo, muna 1550, mumwe muongorori weMilan ainzi Girolamo Cardano akasarudza kuisa lenzi pamberi pegomba, iro rakagadzirisa dambudziko racho. Kare muna 1568, Danieri Bárbaro akagadzira nzira yekusiyanisa saizi yegomba, ichipa iyo yekutanga diaphragm. Pakupedzisira, muna 1573, Inácio Danti akawedzera girazi rakakomberedzwa kuti rishandure mufananidzo wakaratidzwa, kuitira kuti urege kutenderera pasi.

kuti kamera inoshanda sei

Iyo analogi kamera inoshanda kuburikidza nemakemikari nemakanika maitiro, ayo anosanganisira zvinhu zvine chekuita nekuona, kupinza kwechiedza, uye kutora mufananidzo. Zvikurukuru, ndiwo mashandire anoita ziso remunhu. Nokuti paunovhura maziso ako, chiedza chinopfuura nepacornea, iris uye vana. Mapoinzi anobva aratidzwa paretina, iyo ine basa rekutapa nekushandura zviri munharaunda pamberi pemeso kuita mufananidzo.

Sezviri mucamera obscura, mufananidzo unoumbwa paretina unopinduka, asi uropi hunoita hanya nekusiya chifananidzo chiri panzvimbo chaiyo. Uye izvi zvinoitika munguva chaiyo, senge pane kamera.

mukati mekamuri

Iyo kamera yemifananidzo yakasimuka kubva pamusimboti wecamera obscura. Nokuti, sezvo mufananidzo wacho waisagona kunyorwa, waingoratidzwa pasi pebhokisi, saka pakanga pasina mifananidzo. Kufunga nezve nzira yekurekodha chifananidzo ichi, yekutanga mafoto kamera inobuda.

Mugadziri wechiFrench, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, paakavhara ndiro yerata nebhitumini chena kubva kuJudhiya, akabva aisa ndiro iyi mukati mekamera obscura ndokuivhara. Akabva anongedza kuhwindo ndokurega mufananidzo wacho uchitorwa kwemaawa masere. Uye saka firimu rekutanga remifananidzo rakazvarwa. Zvadaro, muna 1839, Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre akatanga chinhu chekutanga chakagadzirwa kuti chitore mifananidzo, chinonzi daguerreotype, chakatanga kutengeswa pasi rose.

Chamber: Calotype

Nekudaro, aive William Henry Fox-Talbot akagadzira nzira yekuipa uye yakanaka mukutora mifananidzo, inonzi calotyping. Ndiyo yakabvumira kubudisa mifananidzo pamwero mukuru, uye mapepa ekutanga akaonekwa. Mushure meizvozvo, kufambira mberi kwakaenderera mberi, nemakamera sezvatinoaziva nhasi, aine lenzi akavandudzwa, firimu, uye kunyangwe mafoto edhijitari.

kamera zvikamu

Chaizvoizvo, kamera ichiri kamera yakasvibiswa, asi yakakwana. Ndiko kuti, ine nzira yekudzora kupinza kwechiedza (shutter), iyo yekuona chikamu (chinangwa lens) uye zvinhu izvo mufananidzo uchadhindwa kana kurekodhwa (photographic film kana digital sensor). Mukuwedzera, kamera yemifananidzo ine pakati pezvikamu zvayo zvikuru zvemuviri, uko kunowanikwa chivharo, flash, diaphragm uye mamwe ose maitiro anoita kuti ashande, akadai se:

1. Chinangwa

Inofungidzirwa kuti mweya wekhamera yemifananidzo, sezvo iri kuburikidza nayo iyo chiedza chinopfuura nepakati peseti ye lenses, iyo inotungamirirwa nenzira yakarongeka kune firimu remifananidzo, richigadzira mufananidzo.

2- Shutter

Ndiyo inosarudza kuti firimu kana kuti sensor yedhijitari ichave yakafumurwa kuchiedza kwenguva yakareba sei, inovhura kana bhatani revhavha richidzvanywa, richibvumira chiedza kupinda mukhamera. Uye zvakare, ndiyo yekumhanyisa yekuvhara iyo inotsanangura kupinza kwemufananidzo, iyo inogona kusiyana kubva pa30 s kusvika 1/4000 s. Saka kana ikasiiwa yakavhurika kwenguva yakareba, mhedzisiro ichave isina kujeka mufananidzo.

3- Sikirini

Kuburikidza nechitarisiko chaunogona kuona chiitiko kana chinhu chaunoda kutora mufananidzo. Mune mamwe mazwi, igomba riri pakati pemalenzi akaiswa zvine hungwaru uye magirazi anotendera mutori wemifananidzo kuti aone chaizvo chiitiko chaachatora.

4- Diaphragm

Iyo inotarisira kuwanda kwechiedza chinopinda kamera, zvichiratidza kusimba uko iyo firimu kana dijitari sensor ichagamuchira chiedza. Kureva kuti, diaphragm inosarudza kana midziyo ichawana yakawandisa kana kuti shoma. Kutaura zvazviri, kushanda kwe diaphragm kwakafanana nemboni yeziso remunhu, iyo inobata kudzora chiedza chinotorwa nemaziso.

Zvisinei, buri rinogara rakavhurika, saka zviri kumutori wemifananidzo kuti aone pakamira pevhu. Saka iyo aperture uye shutter inofanira kugadziriswa pamwe chete kuti uwane mufananidzo waunoda. Zvakare, aperture inopimwa nehukoshi hunotarwa netsamba "f", saka iyo yakaderera kukosha kwef, iyo yakawanda yakavhurika aperture.

5- Photometer

Mechanism ine basa rekuona kuratidzwa kwakakodzera usati wadzvanya shutter. Ndiko kuti, mita inodudzira ambient mwenje zvichienderana nezvigadziro zvakatemwa nemutori wemifananidzo. Zvakare, kuyerwa kwayo kunoonekwa pamutongi diki pane kamera, saka kana museve uri pakati, zvinoreva kuti kuratidzwa kwacho kwakaringana mufananidzo. Nekudaro, kana museve uri kuruboshwe, foto ichave yakasviba, kurudyi, zvinoreva kuti kune yakawandisa kuratidzwa kwechiedza kunoita kuti iwedzere kupenya.

6- Foto firimu

Yakasarudzika kune analog kamera, firimu remifananidzo rinoshandiswa kudhinda mafoto. Izvo zviri izvo, saizi yayo yakajairika i35mm, saizi yakafanana yedhijitari sensor inoshandiswa mumakamera edhijitari. Mukuwedzera, iyo firimu inoumbwa nehwaro hwepurasitiki, inoshanduka uye yakajeka, yakafukidzwa nehutete hwakatsetseka hwemakristasi esirivha, inonyatsonzwa kune chiedza.

Muchidimbu, kana shutter yasunungurwa, chiedza chinopinda mukhamera uye chinopinda mufirimu. Zvino, kana ichiiswa kumishonga yemakemikari (emulsion), pfungwa dzechiedza dzakatorwa nekristaro dzesirivheri dzinopisa uye mufananidzo wakatorwa unooneka.

Chiyero chekunzwa kwechiedza chefirimu chinoyerwa neISO. Uye pakati pezvinowanikwa ISO 32, 40, 64, 100, 125, 160, 200, 400, 800, 3200. Avhareji yekuyera kuyerwa ndeye ISO 400. Kurangarira kuti iyo yakaderera ISO nhamba, iyo firimu rinonyanya kunzwisiswa.

Nhasi, kunyangwe nehunyanzvi hwese huripo, nemhando yepamusoro uye nemakamera edhijitari, makamera eanalogi anofarirwa nevazhinji vanofarira mafoto. Izvi zvinokonzerwa nemhando yemifananidzo yakatorwa, iyo isingade kugadziriswa semadhijitari.

Sekureva kwevatori vemifananidzo, kushandiswa kwefirimu kunokosheswa nekuti huwandu hwayo hune simba hunopfuura dhijitari. Uye iyo yakatorwa mifananidzo haigone kudzimwa sezvazvinoitika nemifananidzo yedhijitari, ichigadzira yakasarudzika uye isina kudhindwa mifananidzo. Nekudaro, mamwe makambani akaita seFuji neKodak haachatengesi firimu remifananidzo.

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