Heshiisyada Tignoolajiyada

Consolas

Hubaal inaad xasuusato Nidaamka Master-ka, Super Nintendo ama Megadrive. Laakiin ma xasuusataa Atari 2600 ama SG-1000? Xiisaha ciyaaraha Retro waxay sii wadaan inay ciyaaraan consoles-yadan hore markay firaaqada yihiin.

Hadda waxaan u nimid jiilkii ugu dambeeyay ee consoles-yada ciyaarta ee PlayStation, XBox iyo kuwa kale. Koonsole guri ee ugu horeeyay aduunka waxa uu dib u dhacay 1972: Magnavox Odyssey. Magac fiican in yar marka hore. In ka badan afartan sano ee jiritaankeeda, warshadaha ciyaaraha fiidiyooga waxay na siiyeen dhowr ciyaarood oo ciyaaraha ah oo yar oo xusuusta ... Ma xasuusataa?

Retro iyo consoles-yada ugu fiican taariikhda

Tariikhda xarfaha waaweyn leh waxaa qora guulwadayaashii, sidaan wada ognahay. Si la mid ah ciyaaraha fiidiyowga. Haddii aan ognahay soosaarayaasha ugu muhiimsan sida Nintendo, Sony, Microsoft ama SEGA daahay, ka waran kuwa kale? Kuwa isku dayay habab cusub ama dib u soo nooleeyay giraangiraha. Hagaag, waanu kuu sheegi doonaa hadda.

Magnavox Odyssey, oo la sii daayay 1972 gudaha Mareykanka iyo 1973 ee Yurub, oo ah kii ugu horreeyay ee dhammaan qalabka ciyaarta

Magaca interstellar ee kan console-ka barafka cad. Odyssey wuxuu ahaa jiilkii ugu horreeyay ee consoles-yada ciyaarta waxaana soo saaray Magnavox. Sanduuqan istaarijka ah ayaa lahaa nidaamka kaadhka waxaana lagu xidhay telefishin. Console ayaa ciyaarta ku soo bandhigay midab madow iyo caddaan ah. Ciyaartoyda waxay saareen lakabka balaastiig ah shaashadda waxayna isticmaaleen badhamada wareega si ay u dhaqaajiyaan dhibcaha.

Fairchild Channel F, oo laga bilaabay 1976 gudaha Maraykanka

Ciyaartoyga Fairchild Channel F (sidoo kale loo yaqaan Nidaamka Madadaalada Fiidiyowga ama VES) ayaa la sii daayay Noofambar 1976 gudaha Mareykanka waxaana lagu iibiyay $170. Waxay ahayd console-gii ugu horreeyay ee ciyaaraha fiidyaha ee adduunka oo ka kooban microprocessor oo ku salaysan nidaamka kartoonada.

Atari 2600, oo la sii daayay 1977 ee Maraykanka

Atari 2600 (ama Atari VCS) waa konsole jiil labaad ah oo soo baxay Oktoobar 1977. Waqtigaas, waxaa lagu iibiyay qiyaastii $ 199, waxaana lagu qalabeeyay joystick iyo ciyaar dagaal ("Dagaal"). Atari 2600 wuxuu noqday mid ka mid ah ciyaaraha fiidiyooga ee ugu caansan jiilkeeda (waxay jabisay rikoodhada cimriga Yurub) waxayna calaamadisay bilawga suuqa weyn ee ciyaaraha fiidiyowga.

Intellivision, oo la bilaabay 1980 gudaha Maraykanka

Waxa soo saaray Mattel sannadkii 1979-kii, ciyaarta Intellivision game console (oo ah qandaraaska Intelligent iyo Television) wuxuu ahaa tartankii tooska ahaa ee Atari 2600. Waxa uu ku sii socday iibka Maraykanka 1980 qiimo dhan $299 wuxuuna ka koobnaa hal ciyaar: Las Vegas BlackJack .

Sega SG-1000, oo la sii daayay 1981 ee Japan

SG 1000, ama Sega Game 1000, waa console jiilka saddexaad oo ay soo saartay daabacaha Japanese SEGA, oo calaamadinaya gelitaanka suuqa ciyaaraha fiidiyowga guriga.

Colecovision, oo la bilaabay 1982 gudaha Mareykanka

Isagoo ku kacaya $399 wakhtigaas, console-ka ciyaarta wuxuu ahaa console jiilka labaad oo ay soo saartay Shirkadda Hargaha ee Connecticut. Garaafyadeeda iyo kontaroolkeeda ciyaartu waxay la mid ahaayeen kuwii ciyaaraha arcade ee 80-meeyadii. Ku dhawaad ​​400 oo cinwaan oo ciyaaraha fiidyaha ah ayaa lagu sii daayay kartoonada inta uu nool yahay.

Atari 5200, oo la sii daayay 1982 ee Maraykanka

Jiilka labaad ee ciyaarta console waxaa loo soo saaray si uu ula tartamo kuwii ka horreeyay Intellivision iyo ColecoVision, consoles-yada ugu caansan suuqa iyo, ka sarreeya, ugu jaban. Atari 5200, oo aan waligiis lagu sii dayn Faransiiska, ayaa rabta inay ku muujiso hal-abuurkeeda iyada oo loo marayo 4-da dekedood ee kantaroolaha iyo khaanadaha kaydinta. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, console-ka ayaa si xun u fashilmay.

SNK's Neo-Geo, oo lagu sii daayay 1991 gudaha Japan, Royce of consoles game!

Sidoo kale loo yaqaan NeoGeo Advanced Entertainment System, Neo-Geo console wuxuu la mid yahay nidaamka arcade Neo-Geo MVS. Maktabadooda ciyaarta 2D waxay diirada saartaa la dagaalanka ciyaaraha waana mid tayo wanaagsan leh. Wajiga, dadweynaha guud waxay u arkaan inay tahay "raaxo" console.

Panasonic's 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, oo lagu sii daayay 1993 gudaha Mareykanka

Console-kan, oo leh muuqaal ka casrisan marka loo eego acolytes-kiisa, waxa uu u hoggaansamay heerka 3DO (Waxyaabaha 3D) ee ay dejisay Shirkadda 3DO, oo ah shirkad daabacaadda ciyaaraha fiidyowga Maraykanka. Xallinteedu waxay ahayd 320 × 240 16 milyan oo midab, waxayna taageertay saamaynta 3D qaarkood. Waxay ka koobnayd hal deked oo joystick ah, laakiin la oggolaaday in 8 kale laga raro. Qiimaheeda? 700 oo dollar.

Jaguar, ayaa laga bilaabay 1993 gudaha Maraykanka

Inkasta oo ay magaceeda ku riyoonayso iyo tignoolajiyada horumarsan, Jaguar kuma sii waarin suuqa. Qalabka kartoonada ee ugu dambeeyay ee uu sii daayay Atari wuxuu lahaa maktabad ciyaar oo xadidan, taasoo sharxi karta guuldarradiisa.

Nuon - VM Labs - 2000

Horraantii 2000-meeyadii, Nuon ayaa soo baxay, tignoolajiyada VM Labs ee uu aasaasay nin hore Atari, kaas oo u oggolaaday qayb muuqaal ah in lagu daro DVD-ga. Kuwa xusuusta, Jeff Minter wuxuu ahaa mid ka mid ah soosaarayaashooda software. Wuxuu mas'uul ka ahaa Dabaylaha iyo dhammaan noocyada kala duwan ee ay leedahay iyo Weerarkii Geela Mutant. Haddii fikradda ay soo jiidato warqad, kaliya Toshiba iyo Samsung ayaa ku booday bandwagon. Laakiin marka la barbardhigo Nintendo 64, gaar ahaan PlayStation 2 iyo Dreamcast-ka, way adkayd in la helo meel la raaco. Kaliya 8 ciyaarood ayaa loo sii daayay taageeradan, oo ay ku jiraan Tempest 3000 ama Space Invaders XL

Microvision - MB - 1979

Game Boy (kaas oo dhawaan 30 jir noqday) ayaa badanaa si qalad ah loogu maleeyaa inuu yahay console-kii ugu horreeyay ee la qaadi karo oo leh kartoojyo la beddeli karo. Hagaag, runtii waxaa ka horreeyay MB's Microvision (ka dib si uu u noqdo Vectrex) ku dhawaad ​​​​toban sano. Mashiinkan dheer ayaa horay loo oggolaaday inuu ku raaxaysto ciyaaro kala duwan dhammaadkii 1979. Kala duwanaansho waa mid aan caddayn, sababtoo ah inta u dhaxaysa cilladaha wax soo saarka ee xaddidaya nolosha shaashadda, qaybaha iyo kumbuyuutarka, iyo 12 cinwaan oo la sii daayay afar sano gudahood, waxay ahayd. ma aha runtii xisbi. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxay ku faani kartaa inay noqoto kan ugu horreeya.

Phantom - Infinium Labs - Waa la joojiyay

Aynu wax yar khiyaano darajadan oo aynu xusno Phantom-ka, "console" oo aan waligood arag iftiinka maalinta, laakiin taasi waxay keentay in ciyaartoyda ay ku riyoodaan sii deyno cusub 2003. Xigashooyinka ayaa maskaxda ku haya sababtoo ah waxay ka sarreysay dhammaan PC-ga awood u leh inuu socodsiiyo ciyaaraha waqtiga iyo kuwa mustaqbalka. Laakiin, tanina waxay ahayd barta ay xoogga ku leedahay marka loo eego naqshadeeyayaasheeda, waxay oggolaatay helitaanka ciyaaraha baahida, oo loo yaqaan 'gameing in Cloud', iyada oo ay ugu wacan tahay darawalkeeda adag iyo isku xirka internetka. Sannadkii 2003. Markaa waxaanu ka horraynay OnLive, kaas oo sidoo kale burburay. Dhab ahaantii, ka dib markii ay ku guuldareysteen in ay helaan maalgashadayaasha waalan oo ku filan si ay u dhigaan $ 30 ee loo baahan yahay mashruuca, Phantom waa la dhigay nasasho iyo Infinium Labs, tan iyo markii loo magacaabay Phantom Entertainment, waxay ku dhejisay kumbuyuutarradeeda si aad u saarto dhabtaada. Websaydhku wali waa online, qalabkan wali waa la iibsan karaa. Laakin ka digtoonow, dib looma cusboonaysiin tan iyo 2011kii.

Gizmondo - Tiger Telematics - 2005

Waa mishiin naga iibisay riyo ka hor inta aanu ku qarxin hawada, sida shilkii cajiibka ahaa ee Ferrari Enzo ee Malibu, kaas oo daaha ka qaaday fal-dambiyeedka iyo khiyaanada weyn ee maamulayaasha Tiger Telematics. Shirkadan Iswidhan waxay haysatay, warqad, mishiin la qaadi karo oo aad u fiican. Shaashad fiican, badhammo badan oo ficil ah oo tilmaamaya gameplay weyn, iyo astaamo wanaagsan sida GPS. Fikradda aadka u soo jiidashada leh ayaa soo jiidatay maalgashadayaasha, kuwaas oo ku darsaday malaayiin. Tiger Telematics ayaa markaa awoodi karta shatiyada lagama maarmaanka u ah guusha mashiinka cusub sida FIFA ama SSX. Laakin wax yar ka dib markii konsole la furay, bishii Oktoobar 2005, tabloid Swedish ah ayaa shaaca ka qaaday in shirkaddu ay xiriir la leedahay maafiyada maxalliga ah. Kadib, bishii Febraayo 2006, shilka caanka ah ee Ferrari ee Stefan Eriksson, mid ka mid ah agaasimayaasha Gizmondo Europe, ayaa saarnaa. Nasiib darro isaga, baaritaanka shilka ayaa shaaca ka qaaday dhammaan khaladaadka iyo Eriksson wuxuu ku dhammaaday xabsiga iyada oo ay weheliyaan maamulayaal kale oo lagu eedeeyay musuqmaasuq iyo canshuur lunsi. Kaliya 14 ciyaarood ayaa la sii daayay, in ka badan kala badh kuwaas oo la sii daayay kaliya wakhtiga la sii daayay.

Playdia - Bandai - 1994

90-meeyadii waxay ahaayeen waqti ku wanaagsan horumarinta consoles-yada nooc kasta ah. Bandai, oo leh shatiyada anime ee casiir leh sida Dragon Ball, ayaa la go'aamiyay inuu galo ciyaarta. Natiijadu waxay ahayd Playdia, mashiinka madadaalada warbaahinta badan ee dhalinyarada halkii ay ka ahaan lahayd console ciyaarta runta ah. Dhab ahaantii, tani waa ereyga ugu habboon, tan iyo soddonkii cinwaan ee la sii daayay, ku dhowaad dhammaantood waa filimaan is-dhexgal ah oo ku salaysan shatiyo si fiican loo yaqaan sida Dragon Ball, Sailor Moon ama Kamen Rider. Ma jiro wax aad u xiiso badan, marka laga reebo in konsole-ku uu la yimid kontaroolaha wireless-ka infrared, iyo tan, dib u soo noqoshada 1994.

Pippin - Apple Bandai - 1996

Wax qarsoodi ah maaha in ka dib markii Steve Jobs lagu qasbay inuu ka tago shirkaddii uu aasaasay 1985, wax walbaa hoos bay u dhaceen. Mashiinno taxane ah oo dhan ayaa la sameeyay. Waxaa ka mid ah, Newton, kiniin hore oo shaqaynayey kala badh; daabacayaasha; kamaradaha; dhexdana u ah ciyaarta ciyaarta. Naqshadeynta iyada oo lala kaashanayo Bandai, kan dambe ayaa mas'uul ka ahaa naqshadeynta keligiis, halka Apple ay bixisay qaybaha iyo nidaamka hawlgalka (Nidaamka 7 ee kuwa garanaya). Bandai, waxay u ahayd fursad ay kaga faa'iidaysato sumcadda Apple, halka Apple ay u ahayd fursad ay ku soo saarto $ 500 Macintosh aasaasiga ah. Nasiib darro, waxba uma socon sidii qorshuhu ahaa. Taariikhda bilawga ah ee Japan ayaa dib loo dhigay lix bilood oo qiimihiisii ​​mamnuuca ahaa ee konsole-ka ciyaarta ayaa ka hor istaagtay inuu cagta saaro suuqan ay u badan yihiin Nintendo, Sony iyo SEGA. In ka yar 80 ciyaarood ayaa lagu sii daayay Japan iyo ilaa 18 gudaha Maraykanka. Fashil run ah, kaliya 42.000 oo nuqul ayaa la iibiyay.

Super A'Can - Funtech - 1995

Koonfur-bari Aasiya waxay caan ku tahay soo jiidashada suuqa madow. Ciyaaraha rasmiga ah ama consoles-yada waa qaali taas oo ciyaartoyda ka jirta goobahan ay u arkaan inay faa'iido badan u leedahay inay iibsadaan nuqul gebi ahaan sharci-darro ah ama clone. Laakiin Funtech, oo ah shirkad ka socota Taiwan, ayaa dooneysay inay tijaabiso 90-meeyadii. Natiijada isku daygan ayaa ahaa Super A'Can, console 16-bit ah oo leh nashqad aad u la mid ah Super NES, laakiin iibkiisa bishii Oktoobar 1995, dhexda dagaalka 32-bit. Ma aysan helin wax fursad ah oo kaliya 12 kulan ayaa la fasaxay. Khasaaraha ayaa gaarayay 6 milyan oo doolar, taasoo keentay in la xiro shirkadda Funtech, taasoo burburisay dhammaan qalabkii ay ku shaqeyneysay xilligii wax soo saarka, inta soo hartayna u iibisay Mareykanka.

Loopy - Casio - 1995

Qalabka ciyaarta ee loogu talagalay gabdhaha dugsiga sare/sare? Casio waxa ay samaysay 1995. Console-kan labaad ee soo saaraha ugu caansan ee xisaabiyayaashu waxa uu ahaa hab ka hor waqtigiisa marka la eego waxqabadka. Loopy wuxuu ka kooban yahay daabace kuleyl midab leh kaasoo kuu oggolaanaya inaad daabacato istiikaradaada sawirada mid ka mid ah tobankii ciyaar ee la sii daayay. Sida iska cad, waxay ahayd in lala tartamo purikura badan oo ku badan Japan in Casio uu sameeyay console-kooda. Laakiin dabcan, inta u dhaxaysa da'da laakiin la xoojiyay 16-bit iyo guusha sii kordheysa ee 32-bit, Loopy ma sii soconin waqti dheer inkastoo fikradda wanaagsan ee been abuurka ah. Haa, waa maxay sababta ay haweenku ugu qasban yihiin inay dejiyaan konsole aan aad u fiicneyn, sida haddii aysan marin kuwa kale?

PEAK - SEGA - 1993

Marka saaraha weyn uu bartilmaameedsado carruurta, waxaad heleysaa SEGA PEAK. Asal ahaan waa Genesis oo leh astaamo si gaar ah loogu talagalay ciyaaraha waxbarashada. Laga bilaabo qalinka Sixirka, qalin weyn oo buluug ah oo ku dheggan saldhigga konsole jaalaha ah oo dhalaalaya. Kartridges, oo loo yaqaan "Storyware," ayaa loo qaabeeyey sida buug sheeko carruureed sida kuwa kale oo badan. Buugga, oo ay ku jiraan sanduuqyo is-dhexgal ah, ayaa la geliyey qaybta sare ee console-ka. Markaad riixdo stylus, waxaad sawiri kartaa ama samayn kartaa ficilada qaarkood. Intaa waxaa dheer, sanduuqyada ayaa isbeddelay bog kasta oo la rogay. In kasta oo guusheeda inta badan ay ku ururtay Japan (in ka badan 3 milyan oo unug ayaa la iibiyay), qaar yar ayaa xusuusta in ay ka gudbeen jidkeedii.

FM Towns Marty - Fujitsu - 1993

Koonsole-kii ugu horreeyay ee 32-bit ah taariikhda wuxuu ahaa, runtii, Jabbaan, laakiin ma ahayn PlayStation-ka, ka fog. Waxaan u maleyneynaa in 32-bit consoles ay la dhasheen dadka iyaga ka dhigay kuwo guuleysta. Sidan maaha. Console ugu horeeyay ee qarnigan ayaa ka yimid hormoodka kombiyuutarada ee Japan, Fujitsu. Ka dib guushii muhiimka ahayd iyo guusha ganacsi ee FM7, shirkadda Japan waxay go'aansatay inay naqshadayso kumbuyuutar cusub, FM Towns, si ay ula tartanto NEC's PC-98. Marka, iyadoo la tixgelinayo xajmiga suuqa konsole, agaasimayaashu waxay go'aansadeen inay sameeyaan nooc loogu talagalay consoles-yada guriga. Natiijadu waxay noqotay FM Towns Marty. Ku qalabaysan CD-ROM Drive-ka ciyaaraha iyo floppy drive loogu talagalay kaydinta (ma qarin karno asalkiisa), 32-bit console wuxuu la jaan qaadayaa dhammaan ciyaaraha FM-ka. Nasiib darro, sida kombuyuutarku, ma ahayn guul inkastoo version labaad oo leh midab madow madow. La sii daayay Febraayo 1993, albamka FM Towns Marty kaliya ayaa ah inuu ahaado kii ugu horreeyay qaybtiisa, in kasta oo tani ay tahay mid laga doodi karo.

Kanaalka F - Fairchild - 1976

Horudhac haddii ay jirto, kanaalka Fairchild F wuxuu ahaa midkii ugu horreeyay, haddaysan ahayn kii ugu horreeyay, ee adeegsada kartoonada ROM-ku-salaysan. Sidoo kale loo yaqaan Nidaamka Madadaalada Fiidiyowga ee Fairchild, mashiinkan waxaa la sii daayay 1976, ka hor Atari 2600 ilaa toban bilood. Jerry Lawson, oo ka mid ah injineerada, ayaa mas'uul ka ahaa abuurista kartoonada barnaamijyada la samayn karo, kuwaas oo ilaa hadda lagu isticmaalo Nintendo Switch maanta. In kasta oo ay jiraan kontaroolayaal dheer oo yaab leh, Canal F waxa ay ku guulaysatay in ay ka samaysato meel wanaagsan lafteeda suuqan bilawga ah. Iyadoo ciyaaro aad uga guul badan Odyssey, tusaale ahaan, guusheeda ayaa la hubiyay.

GX-4000 – Amstrad – 1990

Marka soo saaraha microcomputer-ka moodada ah ee Yurub uu u maleeyo in adduunka consoles-ku la mid yahay, shilka warshadaha ee Amstrad's GX-4000 ayaa dhacaya. Alan Sugar, oo madax ka ah shirkadda Ingiriiska, ayaa damcay inuu galo qolka. Waa maxay habka ugu wanaagsan ee loo sameeyo marka loo eego qalabka ciyaarta? Intaa waxaa dheer, iyadoo kala duwan ee kombiyuutarada, waa ku filan in la beddelo mid iyaga ka mid ah waana taas. Qofku waxa uu qiyaasaa in fikirku uu la mid ahaa ama ka yaraa marka la arko natiijada. La sii daayay 1990kii, GX-4000 ma aha wax ka badan Amstrad CPC Plus 4 oo aan lahayn kiiboobo. Ciyaaraha Cartridge waa kuwo iswaafaqaya laakiin maaha kuwa ugu fiican. Caan ka ah inta badan Yurub, microcomputer-yadani waxay sameeyeen maalmaha quruxda badan ee Faransiisku ku ciyaaraan ciyaaraha Loriciels ama Infogrames. Laakiin maaha GX-4000, kaas oo laga tagay wax ka yar hal sano ka dib markii la sii daayay.

PC-FX – NEC – 1994

Mashruuca Tetsujin ee caanka ah, si uu ula tartamo 32-kii wakhtiga, wuxuu sidoo kale lahaa hawl culus oo lagu guuleysto mid ka mid ah consoles-yada ugu fiican taariikhda, PC Engine (ama TurbografX-16 ee waddankeena). Ma garanayno in cadaadiskani uu ka fiicnaaday caqli-galnimada naqshadeeyayaasha ama haddii fikraddu ay leexatay inta lagu jiro wax-soo-saarka, laakiin console-ka arkay iftiinka maalinta December 1994 wuxuu u ekaa PC oo wuxuu watay magaca PC-FX. Waxaa loola jeedaa in la hagaajiyo si la mid ah kombiyuuterka, mishiinka ayaa si dhakhso ah u dhalaalayay marka loo eego tartanka. Runtii, ma jiro chip 3D gudaha ah, sidaa darteed, ma jiraan geeso geeso ah oo shaashadda ah. Dareenkan guul-darraystay ayaa sabab u noqon doona PC-FX iyo 62-da ciyaarood ee uu ka kooban yahay filimada is-dhexgalka.

Zodiac - Tapwave - 2003

Dhibbanaha kale ee xumbo Internetka horraantii 2000-meeyadii, Zodiac-ka soo socda ee Tapwave (oo ay aasaaseen shaqaalihii hore ee Palm), deris Google ah ee Mountain View. Qalabkan la qaadan karo ee aadka u casriga ah (nooca labaad ee sawirka) waxa la sii daayay 2003dii, sidii la filayeyna, waxa uu ku daray nidaamka hawlgalka Palm. Ciyaaraha waxa lagu shuban karaa laba siyaabood: in mishiinka lagu xidho kombayutarka oo laga koobiyeeyo waxa ku jira kombayutarka kombayutarka, ama in ciyaaraha lagu qaato kaadhka SD. Inkasta oo qaar ka mid ah la qabsiga xiisaha leh sida Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4 ama Doom II, waxay ahayd Sony's PSP taas oo hadhi doonta ilaa heer ay si buuxda u qarinayso.

N-Gage – Nokia – 2003

Aan soo afjarno dib u eegistan consoles-yada yar ee la yaqaan annaga oo xusayna teleefoonka nuska ah ee Nokia, ciyaarta nuska ah, N-Gage. Ciyaarta mobaylada ayaa jirtay muddo dheer, shirkadda Finnishka ah ayaana ka faa'iidaysatay. Markii ay soo baxday 2003, N-Gage waxay ahayd mid gaar ah. In kasta oo ay naqshaddiisu qurux badan tahay, aaladda waa in lagu hayaa geeskeeda inta lagu jiro wada-hadallada taleefanka. Laakiin ergonomic macno-darrada ah kuma dhammaanin halkaas. Si loo geliyo kartoonada qaabka ugu horreeya, batteriga waa in la saaro. Waxay ahayd riyo oo kale. Nasiib wanaag, cilladdan waxaa lagu hagaajiyay N-Gage QD sanad ka dib. Mashiinkani waxa uu arkay la qabsi aad u wanaagsan oo shatiyada caanka ah ee wakhtigaas sida Worms, Tomb Raider, Pandemonium ama Kubbada Daanyeer. Way fududahay in la helo maanta, waa in ay qancisaa kuwa wax soo aruuriya ee u baahan curios.

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